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Teodorani M. & Strand E.P. (1998), Experimental methods for studying the Hessdalen phenomenon in the light of the proposed theories: a comparative overview, ØIH Rapport, 1998:5, Høgskolen i Østfold (Norway), pp. 1-93. Work done for Project Hessdalen _________________________________ Experimental Methods for studying the Hessdalen-Phenomenon in the light of the Proposed Theories: a Comparative Overview ______________________________ Massimo Teodorani, Ph.D. Via Catalani 45 47023 - CESENA (FO) Phone: +39-547-28854, +39-541-948406 ITALY 2 ___________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT Unexplained Lights are observed at alternate phases of maximum and minimum activity in the Hessdalen area: many theories and hypotheses have been promoted in order to explain this phenomenon. The main aim of the study presented here is to try to propose the use of specific instrumentation set-ups, research experimental procedures and methods in order to prove or disprove every single theory. Every theory is presented together with a detailed discussion regarding the subsequent experimental phase. ___________________________________________________________________________ 3 ___________________________________________________________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE : 4 1.0 INTRODUCTION : 5 1.1 THE HESSDALEN PHENOMENON AND THE SEARCH FOR A THEORY : 5 1.2 BALL LIGHTNING AND HESSDALEN-PHENOMENON : 7 2.0 NEW INSTRUMENTATION SET-UP : 9 2.1 STANDARD INSTRUMENTATION : 9 2.2 EXTRA INSTRUMENTATION : 11 3.0 PROPOSED THEORIES AND PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT : 14 3.1 PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC NATURE : 14 (A) INTRINSIC CAUSES 3.1.1 IONIZED FRACTAL GAS CONCENTRATION : 14 3.1.2 IONIZED GAS CONCENTRATION TRIGGERED BY A SELF-RESTRICTED ROTATING ELECTRICAL FIELD : 16 3.1.3 IONIZED VORTON-DRIVEN GAS CONCENTRATION : 17 3.1.4 IONIZED GAS CONCENTRATION TRIGGERED BY A FAST-PULSATING EM FIELD : 19 (B) EXTRINSIC CAUSES 3.1.5 ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY : 20 3.1.6 TECTONIC STRESSES OR SEISMIC PHENOMENA : 22 3.1.7 GAMMA RAYS FROM RADIOACTIVITY : 24 3.1.8 COSMIC RAYS : 25 3.1.9 SOLAR ACTIVITY : 26 3.1.10 COSMIC MAGNETIC MONOPOLES : 28 3.1.11 COSMIC MINI - BLACK HOLES : 30 3.1.12 COSMIC ANTI-MATTER : 33 3.1.13 COSMIC BARYONIC MATTER : 34 3.1.14 METEORS : 35 3.1.15 ARTIFICIAL ELECTROMAGNETIC CAUSES : 36 3.1.16 QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS OF THE VACUUM STATE : 42 3.2 RADIATING MATTER OF PARTICULAR STATE : 44 3.2.1 ANTI-PLASMA LIVING IN OUR ATMOSPHERE : 44 3.2.2 PRE-BIOTIC RADIATING MATTER : 47 4.0 CONCLUSIONS : 50 A P P E N D I X : 52 A - SPECTROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF DENSITY AND PRESSURE OF A LUMINOUS PLASMOID : 52 B - SEARCH FOR PHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR OPTICAL AND IR SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS : 53 C - SEARCH FOR PHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR OPTICAL AND IR PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS : 56 D - CONNECTION OF A TELESCOPE TO THE VPS AND OSAS SYSTEMS : 58 ↓ : 59 E - CONNECTION OF A MULTI-CHANNEL SPECTRUM ANALYZER (MCSA) TO THE EMS SYSTEM 5.0 REFERENCES : 60 ___________________________________________________________________________ 4 PREFACE This work is a personal point of view, intended to serve as a dialectic incentive to the measurement of the Hessdalen-Phenomenon and not just as a specific or dogmatic timetable of observation: only further joint discussions and preliminary trials on the field will allow a final decision. As this work is written by a person with culture and experience in observational astrophysics and not in theoretical or experimental physics, it is possible that it is dictated by some kind of professional deformation, even if within the framework of physics and experimental method that are common both to physics and to astronomy. Moreover, one has tried to show that the approach to the investigated problem should follow an epistemological attitude of expanded positivism, which should not be confused with a blind reductionism. Probably some of the proposed measurements are difficult to put in practice, but it shouldn't be forgotten that the history of Science, with particular reference to some of its heroic phases, demonstrated that the "tension towards the truth" in connection with individual intelligence and creativity and with joint synergy, allowed giant steps to the evolution of the scientific thought: in few words it can be said that nothing is impossible if the real Will exists. I owe particular thanks to Prof.Ing. Erling Strand and to his Staff of Ostfold College (Norway) for giving me the chance to study this phenomenon and for his wise advices and precious comments. Thanks also to Prof. David Fryberger of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (USA) and to Prof. Yoshi Othsuki of the Department of Physics of Waseda University in Tokyo (Japan) for important comments and criticism. JANUARY 1995 Massimo Teodorani Date ..................................... Signature ........................................................................... 5 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 THE HESSDALEN-PHENOMENON AND THE SEARCH FOR A THEORY In March 1994 an International Workshop was held at Hessdalen in Norway in order to arrange a meeting of physical scientists whose specific competences could provide, from one side, theories able to interpret observed prominent light phenomena which appeared, with an alternation of maximum and minimum phases, in the area of Hessdalen and, from the other side, procedures and proposals involving the direct measurement of the phenomenon. That the phenomenon is measurable it has been clearly demonstrated in a precedent stage, a decade ago, by the norwegian engineers and scientists of Project Hessdalen, when some data were collected with the following instruments: (1) Camera with and without Grating (2) Seismograph (3) Radar (4) EM Antenna and Radio-frequency Spectrum Analyzer (5) Magnetometer (6) Laser (7) Geiger Counter (8) IR Viewer The data that could be obtained with the listed instruments had a preliminary character but showed many interesting features, maybe the most important of which were the following ones: (a) The photos showed a large variety of displays: multicolour and multiform lights, pulsating lights, lights whose regime of motion was fastly oscillating, fast-moving or fixed lights, lights which were turned on for over an hour. (b) Among 36 obtained radar-tracks, only 3 ones were also seen as light-phenomena. (c) In one case the radar-track of one light-phenomenon had an intermittent character. (d) A velocity of over 30000 Km/h was measured from one radar-track. (e) The Radio-frequency Spectrum Analyzer revealed oscillating spikes which were equally spread all over the detected band. (f) The Magnetometer recorded real pulsations, with various strengths, of the magnetic field, in a possible temporal correlation with the sighting of the light-phenomenon; no apparent correlation with the normal earthly slowly variable magnetic fluctuation was found. (g) The Seismographic data didn't demonstrate that the light-phenomenon is related to local seismic activity. (h) The Laser beam, once pointed to some pulsating light-phenomena, caused a responsive change of the target's pulsation rate, 8 out of 9 times. (i) One spiral-shaped mark was found on the snow-covered ground, after a light-phenomenon was sighted. These data demonstrated, in addition to the many testimonies obtained from the inhabitants living in the area, that the phenomenon is real and not caused by any apparent form of allucination but didn' t explain at all what this phenomenon consist of, in terms of commonly and academically accepted physical causes. The same group which performed the first measurements has now prepared a technical proposal involving an up-to-date instrumentation set-up: the main new fact here is that now the instrumentation is more complete and, particularly, controlled by a very powerful and efficient informatic set-up able to connect together the involved detectors and to acquire data, at every time of the day, without the strict need of the presence of any personnel in the area. The new instrumental platform is an essential one and is able to get the most part of the prominent expected data. Anyway the use of the instrumentation alone, without the preparation of Crucial Experiments executed in that area, can't prove or disprove any specific theory; the subsequent analysis of the passively acquired data and the consequent trend of these data could suggest, but not prove, without the occurrence of guidedactive experiments, a particular theory. 6 In general, one could ask what are the requisites for a theory to be such; it can be said that these requisites are: I - Self-Consistency : all the observed facts must be connected in a logical framework. II - Simplicity : the theory must be born from a minimum number of hypotheses. III - Completeness: the theory must contain all the observed fact. Do the proposed theories respond to all these requisites? The answer, on the whole, is no. The proposed theories are often logical and simple but are not complete, moreover, some of these theories are (apparently) only partially pertaining to the specific Hessdalen-Phenomenon. Thus how can someone prove or disprove such theories after a straight confrontation with all the observed facts is done? In this case scientists can guide the instrumentation set-up, which allows to acquire many data of different kinds, towards a preferential theory but only with the presupposition that that particular theory is then expanded by new facts. So, observation is more useful to search for the right theory than to prove or disprove a standard one. It is a method of n subsequent approximations by means of which a theory is modified by the observed facts and not vice-versa. When the n-th approximation is reached, one gets the real theory, i.e. the logical description given by our mind of a fact that approximates at a good percentual level that real fact. The theories which were proposed at the Hessdalen Workshop are a sophisticated mental construction, often mathematical, and in some cases have been apparently proven in a human-constructed academic laboratory. The problem here is that the only laboratory of interest is a nature-constructed one: it is the only one of interest for a rigorous and objective solution of the problem. In this disquisition it will be discussed how a particular instrumentation set-up, involving the new one proposed by the Project Hessdalen Team plus others if necessary, can furnish some clues that a specific theory is near reality; it will be also noticed that two or more different theories present very common features and that, for this reason, they could be merged together after some specific measurements of the observed facts are executed. Moreover, in addition to the theories proposed at the Hessdalen Workshop, it will be discussed how some particular hypotheses could be transformed in theses (i.e. theories) following up crucial measurements with particularly addressed instrumental tests. After excluding deliberately a large amount of theories and/or hypotheses of natural or artificial nature which don't fit at all the observed facts appeared in Hessdalen, it is possible to give a short list of some selected mental-constructions which could be, totally or only partially, in an exclusive form or in a merged form, possible candidates to be guiding lines of this research: I - Plasma Concentrations of Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Nature (A) Intrinsic Causes - Ionized Fractal Gas Concentration - Ionized Gas Concentration triggered by a Self-Restricted Rotating Electrical Field - Ionized Vorton-driven Gas Concentration - Ionized Gas Concentration triggered by a Fast-Pulsating E.M. Field (B) Extrinsic Causes - Atmospheric Electricity - Tectonic Stresses or Seismic Phenomena - Gamma Rays from Radioactivity - Cosmic Rays - Solar Activity - Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles - Cosmic Mini-Black Holes - Cosmic Anti-Matter - Cosmic Baryonic Matter - Meteors - Artificial Electromagnetic Causes - Quantum Fluctuations of the Vacuum State II - Radiating matter of particular state - Anti-Plasma living in our atmosphere 7 - Bre-Biotic Radiating matter It should be noticed that the given classification involves objects whose physical appearance in the optical dominion is approximately similar, and whose nature is characterized, by means of normal or exotic physical mechanisms, of a luminous plasma concentration or plasma-like brightening structure which resembles sometimes what is known as a "Ball Lightning" (BL), but which can also include plasmoids of different kinds, as Earth Lights (EL), for instance. All the proposed phenomenologies are intended to be addressed to a physical explanation, in the sense that it is expected that they must follow precise rules and laws which can be structured in a mathematical framework and possibly subject to a laboratory experimentation. References: 1,2,10,16,25,26,29,31,45,48,48I-II-VIII-*,54,55,57,59. 1.2 BALL LIGHTNING AND HESSDALEN-PHENOMENON The specific Hessdalen-Phenomenon, apparently, resembles only partially the typical BL phenomenology, in the sense that some characteristics, as the high frequency of occurrence, the long duration (up-to a factor 100 higher than in the BL case), the large dimensions (up-to a factor 10-100 higher than in the BL case), the high speed and the motion-character strictly related to the ground (much more than in the BL case), are peculiar and, possibly, more similar to the ELs. However the study of the Hessdalen Lights in the context of a general phenomenology of Luminous Plasmas which includes also BL events, could result justified as well for a series of reasons. Almost all the statistics on the specific BL phenomenology doesn't come from technically or experimentallyoriented observations (differently from the case of the preliminary measurements done by the researchers of Project Hessdalen a decade ago), but only from simple accidental eye-witnesses: for this reason "data points" couldn't not be affected by more or less high errors of evaluation on the relevant temporal, kinematical, dimensional and photometric parameters of a BL; because of possible "emotional noise" and bad sight-brain perception of the human witnesses, the BL phenomenon could have been badly estimated (a human witness is not certainly a good measurement device) and the error (also systematic) on every single BL sighting could be enormous as well. Then, a BL could present a much larger variety of forms, durations, speeds, luminosities and dimensions than the one presented by the statistics based on sole eye-witnesses. Moreover, an aimed (and not accidental) technique of observation could demonstrate that the BL phenomenon itself is much more frequent than asserted by witness-statistics. It could be reasonably asserted that the witness-statistics on BLs should have the same low scientific prominence as the witness-statistics on UFOs and that every confrontation of the various theories with observations which are based on human witnesses is indeed lacking in rigour and fitting accuracy. Thus the importance of using an automated instrumentation set-up is threefold: (1) To know the real frequency of occurrence of a BL (how much a BL is rare?). (2) To know the real frequency-spread of the measured temporal, kinematical, dimensional, morphological and phototometric parameters of a BL. (3) To know what is really a BL and how its triggering mechanism is related to a specific Hessdalen Light. In order to reach this goal, the same instrumentation set-up used to study the Hessdalen-Phenomenon should be placed also in other places of Earth where more typical BL-type lights have been sighted: a further confrontation of the obtained data could help in searching for the possibility of a common physical phenomenon. Conversely, if one assumes that the statistics on "standard BLs" is actually correct, by means of proper instrumentation it could be demonstrated that the amplified character of the Hessdalen-Phenomenon could be caused by the place in which the phenomenon occurs but this doesn't mean necessarily that the involved physics is different. The following example could be cited: in astrophysics we know Blue Supergiants and White Dwarfs; we say that they are different, as Blue Supergiants are mostly located in the galactic plane and have a mass of 25 solar masses while White Dwarfs are mostly located in the galactic halo and have a mass of 1 solar mass. This doesn't mean that one is a star and the other one is another thing, as both are born in the same way and they are both stars (i.e. the same physical object) but with different mass and age. In the same way BLs and Hessdalen Lights could be the same kind of physical object but with different initial parameters, which have to be properly established. For all these reasons the term Ball Lightning (BL) will be replaced in the following sections with the term Luminous Plasmoid (LP), which is related to a more general plasma phenomenon that, among all the others (as the ELs), could include both the BL and the Hessdalen phenomena; in particular it will be assumed that 8 the intrinsic cause of both phenomena is the same and that the aimed measurements can prove or confute this hypothesis. Finally, all this discussion doesn't absolutely claims to say that the Hessdalen-Phenomenon is a form of BLPhenomenon; this is only a work-hypothesis that must be verified or excluded by aimed and precise fieldmeasurements. Such measurements, and only they, could say, contrarily to the ventured BL-type Plasmoid Hypothesis, that the Hessdalen-Phenomenon does not consist exactly of a plasma (for instance, it could consist of a further unknown state of matter or, even, of a luminous machine): if this fact could be demonstrated then one could be in a condition to assert that the Hessdalen-Phenomenon should be studied separately from the BL phenomenon. References: 3,8,9,10,11,23,26,24,31,48,54,55,56,57,59,61,63,64,69 9 2.0 NEW INSTRUMENTATION SET-UP It should be said that a chosen basic instrumentation set-up can give precious informations on many aspects characterizing all the proposed theories or hypotheses and not only one. It is not necessary to use a specific instrumental-platform in order to demonstrate a specific theory. The discriminant factors can emerge only after a specific analysis tactics is applied to the data coming from a commonly accepted instrumentation, as almost all of the theories involve a similar phenomenological display. The difference stays in the way in which the phenomenological outlines that emerge from the instrumental data acquisition process are connected together and in the expected trend of the measured physical parameters. Anyway, it is possible to add to the basic platform some additional instruments in order to allow the verification of some particular aspects of one or more theories in particular. 2.1 STANDARD INSTRUMENTATION For simplicity one could adopt a basic system, the new one proposed and actually under development by the researchers of Project Hessdalen, which is composed of the following instruments: (1) The Electromagnetic System (EMS) It is made up of a set of 6 Hexagonal Antenna arrays, operating in the UHF band in the range 450-869 MHz, that are connected to one Spectrum Analyzer (bandwidth = 1.8 GHz). This instrument is used to detect frequency, polarization and direction of a given target-signal at a high S/N ratio and every signal can be recorded on a Video Cassette Recorder (VCR) (2) The Radar System (RS) It is characterized by a range possibility of 0.4-60 Km, operating wavelength of 3 cm, VCR storage capability, possible filtering of unwanted echoes, magnetron peak power of 10 KW and automatic target tracking. This instrument is used to record the movements of a target able to reflect radar waves; the position of the target is communicated to the TS system. (3) The Tracking System (TS) It is characterized by a black and white (BW) CCD Video Camera which is intended to be alerted by the RS and EMS systems, placed on a platform able to move at a velocity of 30° per second and to cover 360 degrees horizontally and 180 degrees vertically; images are sent to a TV monitor. This instrument is used to track the target, by keeping the targeted light in the center of the camera lens. (4) The Infrared System (IRS) It consists of an IR Camera, a VCR and a TV monitor. The IR imager works on a 8000-12000 Å band and can be used on a wide angular field of view of 20°x 13.2° and on a narrow field of view of 5°x3.3° (zoo m possibility) which can be quickly interchangeable. High thermo-sensitivity and high spatial resolution can allow to detect and recognize a "man-size" target at a distance of 3 Km. This instrument is used to study the low-energy thermal emission of the phenomenon and is useful also in poor weather conditions. (5) The Optical Spectrum Analyzer System (OSAS) It consists of a set of Spectrographic Devices with specific dispersing elements that can furnish a spectral resolution of λ/δλ = 2-4x103 Å (δλ = 1.3-2.6 Å) at a central wavelength λ = 5700 Å (Low-Medium spectral resolution) and that work typically in the optical range (3800-7600 Å) with the possibility of expansion towards the near IR and near UV ranges. The given devices are connected to a focal lens and make use of optical fibers for spectral light transmission. This instrument is used to study the widest optical spectrum of the luminous phenomenon. (6) The Seismograph System (SS) 10 It is characterized by a 50 Hz sample rate, high modularity and different possibilities of resolution (12-24 bit). This instrument is used to get informations on the movements of the Earth's crust. (7) The Magnetometer System (MS) It is characterized by a three-axis (x,y,z) Magnetic Field Sensor, a data rate of 10 measurements per second with 8-bit resolution along each axis. The sensor can handle magnetic fluctuations up-to 2 KHz and has a 100 uT full scale measurement range. This instrument is used to measure possible variations of the local magnetic field. (8) The Video & Photo System (VPS) It consists of a wide-angle color CCD Camera (40°-6 0° horizontally and 30°-50° vertically) and a zoom color CCD Camera (5° horizontally and vertically); all th e CCD images can be recorded on a VCR. It is possible to do both videos and digital photographs. The light phenomenon is intended to be video-shooted symoultaneously both from a main station and from sub-stations (only with wide-angle mode). Both video and photos appear on a monitor. This instrument is used to analyze the light parameters (continuum spectrum) of the luminous phenomenon. (9) The Laser Imaging Radar System (LIRS) It consists of a Lidar instrument. The type of Lidar to be acquired has to be decided and will be added to the station at a later stage: a range of 5 Km and the capability of analyzing all known substances and gases are the required performances. It must be connected to the TS system. This instrument is used to analyze, in connection with the OSAS system, the substance of which the luminous phenomenon is constituted. (10) The Weather Station System (WSS) The "Aanderaa System" of atmospheric parameter determination is recommended: it includes a sensor scanning unit, an air temperature sensor, a relative humidity sensor, an air pressure sensor and a solar radiation sensor. This instrument is used to measure meteorological data. (11) The Reference Light System (RLS) It is intended to measure the light intensity of the phenomenon and it consists of Reference Light Sources that emit white light, placed in a circle around the main station. Use of searchlights, able to give 1 Lux at a range of 5 Km, and of reflecting mirrors, is highly recommended. (12) The Air Control System (ACS) This facility is intended to be used in order to execute a cross-confrontation between the radar-detected Hessdalen-Phenomena and the known air traffic in the Hessdalen area. This basic instrumentation set-up can well furnish the essential data with some completeness and it is well necessary in order to examine many aspects that are present in all the theories. All the details regarding the instruments themselves, the techniques of computer control, interface and link and the project choices are amply described and discussed in References 1,2,16,25,48II-VIII, works that are intended to be propaedeutic to this one. 2.2 EXTRA INSTRUMENTATION Additional Instruments could be possibly used in order to strengthen some particular measurements and/or to address the research to a particular proposed theory: this additional equipment and its detailed modality of use will be recalled in the discussion of the various theory-tests, when/if necessary. These instruments can be divided in the following three classes: 11 I - FACILITIES USED TO IMPROVE THE MEASUREMENTS DONE WITH THE STANDARD INSTRUMENTATION SET-UP (1) High Dispersion Devices (HDD): To be integrated in the basic OSAS system in order to allow spectroscopic measurements requiring a High Spectral Resolution ( λ / ∆λ = 104 up-to 106 ). It is sufficient that the interested range is only the optical one: 3300 ≤ λ ≤ 7800 Å. It is essential in order to verify some specific aspects characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.1.6, 3.1.10, 3.1.11). (2) Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (IRSAS): To be integrated in the basic OSAS system in order to allow spectroscopic measurements permitting the extension of the spectrum to the near Infrared (this possibility is already contemplated by the standard OSAS system). The interested additional range is in this case: 7800 ≤ λ ≤12000 Å. It is essential in order to verify some specific aspects characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.15, 3.2.1, 3.2.2); moreover, the consequent wavelength-widening of the spectral analysis can be useful in order to give completeness to the examination of every theory. (3) Ultraviolet Spectrum Analyzer (UVSA): To be integrated in the basic OSAS system in order to allow spectroscopic measurements permitting the extension of the spectrum to the near Ultraviolet (this possibility is already contemplated by the standard OSAS system). The interested additional range is in this case: 2000 ≤ λ ≤ 3300 Å (Soft UV). The consequent wavelength-widening of the spectral analysis can be useful in order to give completeness to the examination of every theory. (4) Ultraviolet Imager (UI): To be integrated in the basic VPS system in order to allow photometric measurements permitting the extension of the video-photo observation to the near Ultraviolet. The interested additional range is in this case: 2000 ≤ λ ≤ 3300 Å (Soft UV). The consequent wavelength-widening of the spectral analysis can be useful in order to give completeness to the examination of every theory and it can be used to verify one specific aspect of one theory in particular (see 3.1.15). (5) Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer (MCSA): To be integrated in the basic EMS system, as a replacement of the standard spectrum analyzer, in order to allow a multi-frequency simoultaneous picture of the phenomenon (see Appendix E). It is used to verify some specific aspects characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.3, 3.1.6, 3.1.9, 3.1.15, 3.2.1, 3.2.2), but can also furnish a more detailed picture of the radiofrequency behaviour of the general phenomenon in order to improve the examination of all the theories. (6) Radar Imaging Capability (RIC): To be implemented in the basic RS system in order to allow a clear radar-image of the phenomenon, in which the radar-magnitude of the target can be measured. It is used to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.3), but can also furnish a more detailed picture of the radar-signature of the general phenomenon in order to improve the examination of all the theories. (7) Radar Telemetric Capability (RTC): To be implemented in the basic RS system in order to allow an "allconditions" determination of the distance of the target. It is of fundamental importance in order to allow the measurement of many physical intrinsic parameters (see Appendix C) that are expected to be determined in the ambit of most theories. (8) Laser or Lidar Telemetric Capability (LTC): To be implemented in the basic LIRS system, or, in case, to be present in a supplementary Laser instrument, in order to allow a very precise determination of the distance of the target in conditions of clear weather. It is an additional and very precise tool that is essential for the accurate measurement of many physical intrinsic parameters that are expected to be determined in the ambit of most theories. (9) Small Telescope Unit (STU): To be added to the VPS and OSAS systems, as a device that in some circumstances (great distance or great light-weakness of the target) should substitute the Zoom-Lens facility (see Appendix D). It is essential in order to warrant precise measurements of physical parameters when the luminous object is very weak or far: this is useful for the examination of all the theories. (10) Light-Bulb Signal Device (LBSD): To be obtained from a modification of the RLS system. To be used in order to excite reactions from a luminous object (variations of luminosity, color, pulsation-rate). It can be useful to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.15) 12 (11) Light-Bulb Attracting Device (LBAD): To be obtained from a modification of the RLS system. To be used in order to attract luminous objects which present photokinetic properties. It can be useful in order to verify one specific aspect characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.2.1, 3.2.2). II - INSTRUMENTS THAT ARE ADDED TO THE STANDARD INSTRUMENTATION SET-UP (1) Electrostatic Detector (ED): To be spread in large number all over the area interested by the phenomenon in order to detect electrostatic charges coming from the phenomenon. It is used to verify one specific aspect characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.3, 3.1.6). (2) Gamma-Ray Detector (GRD): To be spread in large number all over the area interested by the phenomenon in order to detect emissions of radioactivity from the phenomenon. It is used to verify one specific aspect characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.3, 3.1.7, 3.1.10, 3.2.2). (3) Neutron Detector (ND): To be spread in a large number all over the area interested by the phenomenon in order to detect the emission of neutrons from the phenomenon. It is used to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.3). (4) Acoustic Detector (AD): To be used, in synchronized mode, in connection with some basic instruments (VPS and IRS in particular) in order to measure and record the characteristics of sound waves possibly generated by the phenomenon. It can be used to verify one specific aspect characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.5, 3.1.12, 3.2.1, 3.2.2). (5) Schmidt Small Telescope (SST): To be used to allow the counting of meteor trails seen in the Hessdalen area. It is used to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.14). (6) Fast Photon-Counting Photometer (FPCP): To be used to verify if the luminous phenomenon is subject to very fast temporal light-variation (minimum time-scale: millisecond). This device is preferred to the Time Series Fourier Analysis applied to standard VPS CCD frames. It is useful to verify one specific aspect characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.4, 3.1.15). (7) All-Sky Photometer (ASP): To be used to measure the average sky-luminosity and its time-variation, once the extra luminosity of the Moon-phases can be extracted in the processing stage. It can be used to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.12). (8) Photo-Polarimeter (PP): To be used to measure the quantity and the quality of the optical polarization of the targeted object. It can be used to verify one specific aspect characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.2.1, 3.2.2). (9) Balloon-based Weather Station (BWS): To be used in order to measure the atmospheric air-parameters at high or vaying altitude. It can be used to verify some specific aspects characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.5, 3.1.9, 3.1.11). (10) Satellite-based Magnetometer (SM): To be used by means of a magnetometer placed inside an orbiting satellite in order to do measurement of the geophysical magnetic field and of its morphology in the sector over the Hessdalen area. It can be used to verify one specific aspect characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.8, 3.1.10, 3.1.11, 3.1.13). (11) Missile-based Atmospheric Probe (MAP): To be used putting inside a small missile sensors able to measure the air-thickness of the stratosphere over the Hessdalen area. It can be used to verify one specific aspect characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.11, 3.1.12, 3.1.13, 3.1.14). (12) On-Site Mass Spectrometer (OSMS): To be used in order to determine the chemical composition of more or less volatile substances that could be released and ejected after the flyby or landing of the luminous phenomenon. It can be useful in order to allow the analysis of some features that are expected to be present in some theories (see 3.2.1, 3.2.2). III - EXPERIMENTAL MACHINERY AND FACILITIES (1) Balloon-based Air Sampling (BAS): Procedure to be done with an atmospheric baloon capable to take air samples. It can be useful in order to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.1). 13 (2) Magnetic-Field Inducing Device (MFID): Device used in order to attract a luminous plasmoid or to study its reactions, after an artificial more or less strong magnetic field is applied. The same device can be used also in order to try (in connection with other devices) to re-create the conditions that give rise to a luminous plasmoid (artificial plasmoid creation). It could be useful in order to verify some specific aspects characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.1.1, 3.1.5, 3.1.10). (3) Electrostatic-Charge Inducing Device (ECID): Device used in order to try (in connection with other devices) to re-create the conditions that give rise to a luminous plasmoid. It could be useful in order to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.6). (4) Ground-based Perforated Metal Plate (GPMP): Device specifically built-in in order to test the coexisting gaseous and liquid nature of a luminous plasmoid which is attracted by means of a Magnetic-Field Inducing Device. It could be useful in order to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.1). (5) Light-Emitting and Testing Container (LETC): Device used in three phases: (a) to attract a luminous object which shows photokinetic properties, (b) to trap the object inside a container, (c) to do, inside the container, laboratory experiments on the object. It could be useful in order to verify some specific aspects characterizing some theories in particular (see 3.2.1, 3.2.2). (6) TAC-Electroencephalograph (TE): Device used to measure the electrical activity of the brain (allowing also a false-color image) of some selected Psychic Talents, in order to search for correlations between the frequency of the luminous phenomenon and the maxima of the electroencephalographic tracks. It could be useful in order to verify one specific aspect characterizing one theory in particular (see 3.1.16). General References: 1,2,16,18,25,26,48II-VIII,48XII,56,60,61. 14 3.0 PROPOSED THEORIES AND PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT 3.1 PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC NATURE (A) INTRINSIC CAUSES A Luminous Plasmoid (LP) can be formed when the atmosphere is full of electric charges and runned across by ionizing electromagnetic radiation: both charges and EM radiation can be triggered or injected by means of various external causes and the resulting LP is just the result of an interaction of Charged Particles and Electromagnetic Waves. The LP is physically described as a plasma at high pressure (see Appendix A) which has normally very short relaxation times (the BL case): its life-time should be only some seconds up to a minute if an external source doesn't energize it in a continuous way. This standard prediction is not fitted at all by what is actually observed in Hessdalen, where the phenomenon can last also hours. It is necessary to propose specific theories which can make a confrontation with observation possible and which can explain the possible internal working mechanism and the visual appearance of a given LP. These theories could be the following ones: 3.1.1 IONIZED FRACTAL GAS CONCENTRATION THEORY The structure of a LP, assuming that the LP is triggered by ionizing external radiation, contains simoultaneously properties of a Gas, of a Fluid and of a Solid. The solid (or semi-solid) is characterized by some Aerogel-type substance with a fractal fiber-like structure which constitutes the nucleus of the object and which is characterized by a small superficial tension allowing the object to cross small holes or slits. To this nucleus some gaseous-type molecular substance is attached in a spherically-symmetric lay-out: this substance is heated by the nucleus through the propagation of Thermal Waves and its structure and composition is able to increase the LP relaxation time. This model predicts a strict correlation between the Diameter and the Life-Time of a LP. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics, and, in particular, owing to the predicted long LP relaxation time. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: RS, TS, VPS, LIRS, OSAS, LIRS (Standard) - Baloon-Based Air-Sampling Station, Ground-Based Perforated Metal Plate, Magnetic-Field Inducer (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Experimental. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT: I - Test on Substance 1: Lidar Analysis Probably the best procedure able to ascertain the nature of the substance (aerogel, fractal fibers ecc.) of which such a LP is composed is using the Lidar device of the LIRS system. In This case a Laser beam is sent towards the LP in order to force the atoms to recombine and furthermore emit photons with specific energy. A symoultaneous use of the spectrograph of the OSAS system can allow to analyze the response of LP to Lidar stimulation. In order that this operation is possible (LP tracking) the use of the LIRS and OSAS systems must be associated to the use of the RS and TS systems. 15 II - Test on LP Thermal Nature: Spectroscopic Analysis If the LP gas is not totally ionized, in which case only a continuum spectrum would be observed, the OSAS system must allow to obtain Line Spectra of a LP. If lines are observed in the obtained spectrum, showing partially ionized and/or excited state of the air, one can say that is in the presence of a Thermal Process, where matter and energy are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Such spectra must be confronted with spectral analysis of a similar heated substance (control sample) prepared inside a laboratory. The whole acquired spectrum (3800-7600 Å) is expected to show a Plank distribution represented by a curve that is peaked at a maximum temperature: in this way a precise value of the Temperature of the LP can be obtained. Moreover, the OSAS system can be able to measure the Collision Broadening effect which is expected to be present in every detected spectral line: this procedure can allow a good determination of the Density and Pressure of the plasmoid (see Appendix A). III - Test on LP Temperature Internal Distribution The IRS imaging system, used in its zoom mode, can furnish a photograph in the Infrared of the LP in order to give a thermal topography of the LP and to confirm that a hot nucleus is located in the center of the LP. This imaging operation must be confronted with analogous operations executed on an artificially created vapour or gas of fiber-like nuclear structure which is inserted in a convective air regime subject to an injected EM field (as microwaves, for instance). IV - Test regarding Magnetic Effects on Free Electrons As Thermal Waves, characterizing the heat transfer by means of electrons (electron conductivity) heat all the gas condensation going from the nucleus towards the external border of the LP, it could be important to measure what happens when a LP is attracted and then trapped inside a "magnetic cage" which is runned across by a Strong Induced Magnetic Field. It is expected that the LP could change its luminosity level or even turn off, as the free electrons which form a thermal wave could be trapped by the magnetic lines of the field (de-isothermalization) and possibly accelerated by it giving rise to a Non-Thermal radiation process (of syncrotron kind) with a typical "power spectrum" which is detectable in the radio or microwave ranges. This artificially-induced non-thermal radiation can be efficiently measured by the EMS system, moreover every possible luminosity change of the LP should be measured by the VPS system (once accurately tracked by the RS and TS systems). This experiment could prove that, in the absence of a magnetic field, a LP is effectively heated by thermal waves: as a consequence one would have an indirect proof of the existing correlation diameter-lifetime of a LP. V - Test on Diameter - LifeTime Correlation A more direct way to ascertain the existence of Thermal Waves as the main process able to heat a LP and consequently to ascertain the correlation between the diameter and the life-time of a LP, can be obtained using the following instrumental systems: EMS, RS, TS and VPS. Here the main instruments for the measurement are the RS and the VPS systems. In this case the RS system gives the exact distance, instant by instant, of the LP, while the VPS system gives the exact angular size of the LP. Once these two parameters are symoultaneously known, the linear diameter of the LP can be obtained using simple triangulation operations. Supposing that LPs of all types are observed each one for a long observational time run and then during many observational runs (for many months, for instance) one could obtain many samples of all types of LP (little and large ones with short and long life-times), then a graph given by linear diameter v.s. life-time of an LP could demonstrate a linear growth. 16 VI - Test on Substance 2: Air Sampling A proper procedure for Air Sampling inserted in a station based on a Baloon could allow the acquisition of samples of the air over Hessdalen at various heights. These samples could be, once carried in a laboratory control system, put in a convective motion and stimulated with ionizing radiation by means of a microwave or a gamma-ray discharge. It is expected that the given sample of air could be subject to ionization and consequent heating, resembling so a spherical-like natural LP. External stimulation via radiation should be then stopped: at this moment one could measure how long does the ionized gaseous structure survive, i.e. verify how long is the relaxation time of the LP and if such particular substance can remain ionized for a protracted time after the radiation-input stop; in this way it could be possible to search for "self-heating processes" inside the LP itself. VII - Test on Substance 3: Artificial LP Splitting A Metal Plate with a Small Hole, settled in the Hessdalen area, could be artificially runned across by a strong electromagnetical field. The EM induced field should be used in order to attract a LP (in the same way in which a LP, of BL kind, spontaneously enters a house once attracted by a television set which is turned on) and its intensity could be variable or modulable in order to be able to attract far LPs too. The LP would be consequently forced to enter the hole. The VPS system, using its zoom mode, could record the scene in order to demonstrate that the LP passes on the other side of the plate maintaining its original form (in this case two VPS devices, placed in two opposite places could furnish a better record). A Two-Holes option, assuming that the holes are kept very near, for the metal plate, could produce a LP splitting: in this particular case it would be necessary to check if the entering LP is actually subject to a division in two parts and if the emerging (on the other side of the plate) and predictively inflating two parts meet each other in the same way in which two drops of water merge when united. This experiment could demonstrate the existence of both a gaseous and a liquid coexisting character of a LP. EMPLOYED SCIENTISTS: Plasma Physicists, Atomic Physicists, Astrophysicists, Atmospheric Physicists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 1,2,6,48III-IV-V,50,57,58,68. 3.1.2 IONIZED GAS CONCENTRATION TRIGGERED BY A SELF-RESTRICTED ROTATING ELECTRICAL FIELD THEORY The Luminous Plasmoid is an electrostatic concentration of ionized vapour with a spatially localized charge: this is the result of a radiation field that is self-restricted and whose intensity is gradually decreasing with distance from the nucleus: a formal treatment of this concept is rigorously described by the "characteristic solution" of the Helmotz Equation which quantifies what happens when a rotating electrical field exists around the concentration. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: RS, TS, OSAS, IRS (Standard) - High-Dispersion Device for spectroscopy (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Computer-Simulated. 17 PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT Test on Electric Charge Distribution and on Plasma Regime of Motion Spectroscopy obtained by means of the OSAS system must actually demonstrate the effective ionization and/or excitation state of the gas constituting the LP: the formation of spectral lines, if the gas is not completely ionized, is expected as the result of molecular dissociation and quantum transitions inside the atoms of the air which has been raised to a plasma state. In particular, the expected Rotating Electric Field, if it is also able to put into rotation the ionized-excited gas, should cause a Double Broadening Effect on every single line. The first one is that the gas vortex should cause a strong Rotation-Induced Broadening on the line, if one supposes that the rotation plane is along the sight-line: the line should have a bell-shape and should be at least twice large as a normal line of a laboratory non-rotating gas. The second, more important, effect should be the Stark Effect which causes a specific broadening of the line because of the electric field itself. Moreover, assuming that the central regions of the LP are the hottest ones because of the higher intensity of the electrical field in the center of the LP, it is expected that the higher-excitation lines present a higher Stark effect than the one occurring in the lowerexcitation lines produced in the border of the LP. A simoultaneous use of the IRS system (zoom mode) can show very well this thermal gradient as a hot nucleus surrounded by a colder region. All the spectroscopic features can be observed and measured only if the spectral resolution of the employed OSAS system is high or very high ( λ /δλ = 104−106 ). As, in the spectroscopic phase, the two possibly observed broadening effects are expected to be superimposed, it should be necessary to use a computer simulation (by using an ad hoc package) which takes into account every single line-broadening effect: in this case every computer-simulated effect should be subject to a "weighed average" operation, then overlapped and finally a fit with the observed line could be tried. EMPLOYED SCIENTISTS: Plasma Physicists, Atomic Physicists, Astrophysicists, Atmospheric Physicists, Informaticians, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 2,48IV-V-VI,58,60,61,68. 3.1.3 IONIZED VORTON-DRIVEN GAS CONCENTRATION THEORY The core, and triggering cause, of a LP is a coherent plasma composed of a large number of "vortons", which are toroidal concentrations of electromagnetic charges rotating as flywheels in a dyality symmetry: the formation of such vortons as rotating electromagnetic fields takes place through the mediation of "orphaned" magnetic fields associated with lightning discharge currents. The core of this kind of LP assures spatial coherence and long life-time of an ideal gas at thermal equilibrium: this process could well explain the long life-time occurrence encountered in the specific Hessdalen-Phenomenon. The vorton model for a LP is able to assure the following crucial observational predictions: (1) The LP is subject to Polarization because of deformations of the distribution of charge of the individual vortons. (2) The LP luminosity is caused by blackbody thermal radiation corresponding to different temperature states and colors: when the LP is cold it absorbs like an optically thick blackbody and when hot radiates like an optically thick object. (3) The LP motion in the air is caused by the excape of the protons from the core: this occurrence triggers a residual negative charge in the core region and produces a consequent ionic current in the air. (4) The motion of the vortons themselves can be relativistic: it can produce a Doppler up-shift of the frequency of the blackbody radiation. (5) A nucleon-decay process giving rise to very high electrostatic potentials at the LP location can determine the deposition of electrostatic charges on various surfaces in the vicinity of the LP event. (6) The vorton flywheel mechanism dissipates in the sense that there is a decay of angular momentum whose decay time can be used as a way to determine the LP lifetime. (7) Numerous positron-electron annihilations could give rise to Gamma-ray emission: in particular the 511 Kev Gamma line is expected to be seen at a distance of 100-200 m from the BL event. (8) Neutrons evaporating from the heated nuclei can be detected at a distance of the order of 1 km. 18 (9) The occurrence of low-frequency oscillating electric and magnetic fields and significant interference effects on electric devices are expected. (10) A strong Radar-track is expected by such kind of plasma. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, in particular, owing to the predicted long LP relaxation time and to other physical behaviours such as strong radar signature, magnetic oscillations and oscillating LP motion. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, RS, TS, VPS, OSAS (Standard) - Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer, HighDispersion Device for spectroscopy, Electrostatic Detectors, Gamma-ray Detectors, Neutron Detectors (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT I - Test on Polarization The continuous use of the EMS system is necessary in order to determine the type of polarization of the LP (including its variation). II - Test on Electrical and Magnetical Oscillating Field The EMS system must detect the occurrence of electrical and magnetical oscillating fields; in particular, the connection of a Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer (see Appendix E) to the antennas of the EMS system could help to determine very quickly the peak-frequency at which the phenomenon is operating and allow a quantitative confrontation with the values of power and frequency that are predicted by the mathematical theory. The EMS determination of the direction of the radiation source coupled with radar determination of the distance and position (using the RS system) of an accurately tracked LP must ascertain the LP-driven origin of the oscillating EM field, in particular if the LP is also photographed by the VPS system. III - Test on Magnetical Oscillating Field The MS system is the ideal device able to detect the oscillating magnetic field that is predicted by the dyality rotation. In particular, it should be requested that the MS system has the ability to detect a minimum oscillation of 10-5 G peak-to-peak, assuming that the LP is at a maximum distance of 150 m and that the frequency region of interest is less than 30 Hz. IV - Test on Radar Signature Assuming that the RS system has the capability to measure the magnitude of the LP-target signal return, in order to be able to determine the radar cross section of the LP, it would be possible to do a confrontation with the strong Radar-track that is predicted by the vorton model. V - Spectroscopic Analysis and Test on LP Thermal Nature The OSAS system used in low-medium dispersion mode (standard system) is able to ascertain the Thermal Nature of the emitted optical radiation: if the LP gas is not totally ionized, spectral ionization-excitation lines can be observed and compared with an analogous laboratory gaseous blackbody radiator. Moreover, the possibility to observe the Collision Broadening effect in every spectral line, can allow the determination of the Density and the Pressure of the LP (see Appendix A). In cases of both partial and total ionization, the global spectrum (3800-7600 Å) itself is expected to resemble the form of a Planck curve, where the position of the peak in comparison with a wavelength scale can furnish the value of the temperature of the LP. Assuming that the OSAS system is accurately pointed to the object by means of the RS and TS systems for all the duration of a single LP, it is possible to know the mode of time-decay of the LP temperature: in this case sequential OSAS spectra should be acquired. A simoultaneous and continuous use of the VPS system can ascertain on its turn the blackbody nature of the LP; the observed time-variation (from blue to red) of the LP color can be syncronized with the red-shift of the peak of the Plank spectral curve obtained with the OSAS system. In this way it is possible to obtain the value of the "color-temperature" of the LP and its expected time decaying variation. 19 VI - Search for Vorton-Plasma Dynamic Interactions and Test on Angular Momentum Decay On the basis of the predicted fact that the angular momentum of the vortons composing the LP is decaying in time and hypothizing that the plasma itself could be put into flywheel-rotation by the vortons, it could be important to prove the angular momentum decay by observing the rotation decay of the plasma itself. This one could be also a test that could furnish precious informations on the possible (not predicted) dynamical interactive force operating from the rotating vortons and acting in the regime of motion of the excited-ionized plasma. For this reason it is fundamental to use the OSAS system in medium-high spectral resolution mode ( λ/δλ = 104−105 Å ) (not specifically provided by the standard OSAS system) in order to be able to distinguish the time-transition of the spectral lines from large to small Rotational Doppler Broadening: it is necessary to obtain many sequential OSAS frames. Every OSAS frame must be then correlated with every photometric CCD frame showing the color reddening and the luminosity decay, which can be measured using in continuous mode the VPS system in simoultaneous way with OSAS. The RS and TS systems are used for pointing both OSAS and VPS toward the target. VII - Tests on Electrostatic Charges, Gamma-Ray Radiation and Neutrons Simple tools for the detection of Electrostatic Charges, for the detection of Gamma-Ray Radiation and for the detection of Neutrons should be spread all over the Hessdalen area which can be considered the epicenter of the LP phenomenon. Assuming that everyone of these three-kind detectors is connected to a central control computer, it would be necessary to know the exact time and position in which an electrostatic, a gamma-ray and a neutron emission event is recorded: these data should be then confronted with the position and the time-occurrence of LP events measured by the RS and VPS systems possibly followed by the EMS system. EMPLOYED SCIENTISTS: Plasma, Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physicists, Relativistic Physicists, Quantum Physicists, Astrophysicists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 1,2,6,11,16,25,48VII,50,56,58,65,68. 3.1.4 IONIZED GAS CONCENTRATION TRIGGERED BY A FAST-PULSATING EM FIELD THEORY The LP luminosity in the Hessdalen-Phenomenon lasts often for hours: this is a situation in which the light phenomenon is characterized by a long relaxation-time. It is hypothized that the energizing external process is not continuous but that it occurs at very fast impulses: according to this model, in the intervals between an impulse and the following one, the LP gets cold, at the next impulse the LP gets again hot but for not sufficiently long time to arrive to an explosion. In this way the LP could survive for a long time. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: Possibility to explain very long LP relaxation times. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, RS, TS, VPS (Standard) - Fast Photon-Counting Photometer (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT Test on Fast Light-Variation In this case the instruments to be used should be those connected to the EMS, RS, TS, and VPS systems. In particular the VPS system should acquire continuously images of the LP up to the disappearance of the 20 phenomenon. The acquired sequence of CCD video images should be furtherly analysed using Time Series Fourier Analysis in order to allow the construction of Periodograms able to distinguish fast variations (states "on" and states "off" of the LP luminosity) with a Time Resolution of the order of 0.001-1 second. A better and dedicated instrument for this research would be a Fast Photon-Counting Photometer which is built-in to allow very high time-resolution (10-6-10 seconds). This experiment could demonstrate that what one sees as a fixed light is really a very fast pulsating light, with a frequency which can't be distinguished by the capacity of the human eye and by long-exposure photographs (in this case one would have a time-averaged luminosity profile). SCIENTISTS EMPLOYED: Radiation Physicists, Astronomers, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 1,2,4,25,28,48XII,60,61,66. (B) EXTRINSIC CAUSES 3.1.5 ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY GLOBAL INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, MS, RS, TS, VPS, WSS (Standard) - Ballon-based Weather Station, Acoustic Detector, Magnetic-Field Inducing Device, F.A.E. Experimental Explosions (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Observational-Statistical, Experimental. THEORY 1 The weather electricity, expecially during storms, can determine the formation of Luminous Plasmoids, in particular, of Ball Lightnings: this phenomenology is particularly accentuated in conditions of high convectivity of the air in the atmospheric layers. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In order to verify if the specific Hessdalen Phenomenon can be triggered by the same mechanism that is thought to trigger typically a plasmoid of BL-type. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT 1 Test on Correlation between Air Convective State and LP Countings The local WSS system, in connection with analogous apparatuses placed on Baloons ascending or binded to a fixed wire on the vertical of the Hessdalen area, can allow to determine the convectivity level and character of the local atmosphere. A simoultaneous monitor executed by means of the EMS, RS, TS and VPS systems should determine if the number of LP events per day is actually connected with the convective state of the atmospheric weather. A Gaussian distribution of maximum LP-event frequency is expected just during the maxima of the atmospheric convection. THEORY 2 Atmospheric Convection, local terrestrial Magnetic Field, together with (constant) Earth Rotation could be, all together, an efficient "dynamo mechanism" able to produce electrostatic charges in large quantities: a similar phenomenon is observed in a much more amplified form in the sun and the stars. In the context of this hypothesis the following mechanism could be depicted: The air pressure coming from convection puts the atmospheric gas in upward-downward motion combined possibly with turbulence-driven local gas rotation. It is suggested that, in particular circumstances, the convective pressure could influence the local magnetic field lines, in case amplifying them and that the magnetic field lines could be used as a "wall" able to confine and to influence in its turn further gaseous convective motions. The Earth's rotation could act as a mediator in this process and furnish, using Coriolis Force as an inertial force, a rotational symmetry to many cells of gas. The air molecular friction produced in the whole process could give rise to the formation of electrostatic charges which in their turn could be a trigger mechanism for heating the gaseous cells in the form of Luminous Plasmoids of BL kind. 21 Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics (with some reference to BLs) and, in particular, in order to verify if the Hessdalen case can present peculiar conditions such as a strong local (transiently variable) geophysical magnetic field and/or an accentuated local convective air-regime. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT 2 Test on Correlation between Dynamo-Mechanism and LP Countings Experimenters should choose a "desert open-air laboratory" where it is ascertained that the air is reasonably stable. Subsequently two perturbing factors could be arificially introduced: (a) A strong magnetic field of variable intensity obtained with a powerful dynamo-like device. (b) A strong convective situation produced with the explosion of a F.A.E. (Fuel Air Explosive) bomb at an height over the ground of 100 m - 1000 m. Artificial factors (a) and (b) could be introduced separately or together. The consequent artificial formation of (BL-like) Luminous Plasmoids could be expected. It is wanted to know at which magnetic field and convection intensity, interaction and time-scale a plasmoid can be created. A portable equipment including RS, TS and VPS systems should be used during and after the experiments (a) and (b) in order to count the number of locally occurring LP events. All these measurements should be then confronted with the measured values of the local natural magnetic field in the Hessdalen area using the MS system, of the local natural convective situation in the Hessdalen area using the WSS system, and with the measured frequency of observed LPs in the specific Hessdalen area. THEORY 3 Numerous witnesses in the Hessdalen area joined the appearance of LPs with the occurrence of Acoustic Bangs. A bang, which can be originated from various causes, as the overcoming of the sonic wall (Mach number) by airplanes, missiles, meteors, objects of atmospheric reenter or others such as those originated from seismic shocks, can give rise to a transient more or less strong modification of the convective regime of the local atmosphere, eventually to the compression of the local magnetic field and finally to possible consequent trigger of electrostatic charges which could in their turn (expecially if associated to natural causes of air ionization of electromagnetic nature) produce a LP. Some evidence of this possible mechanism is present in some photos or videos showing balls of light (once called "Foo Fighters") surrounding fighter airplanes during World War Two and also during the Gulf War in 1991 (in the sky of Bagdad): in these cases the air surrounding the fighters was completely saturated of explosions caused by counterair guns or g-a missiles. Moreover another video shows a small ball of light which is following a Concorde airplane after passing one of its two supersonic regimes. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, in particular, for the fact that acoustic bangs have been actually heared (also by the undersigned, in march 1994) in the valley of Hessdalen. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT 3 Test on Correlation between Acoustic Waves and LP Countings A device able to measure Acoustic Waves connected with a recorder, should be placed at the Hessdalen measurement-station. It is fundamental to place inside this device a clock that is syncronized with another clock which is inserted inside the VPS system, in order to establish a time-correlation between the sound event and the luminous LP event: one could confirm the theory above if the sound event occurs before or symoultaneously with the luminous event. This mechanism could create charged particles because of the air-friction caused by the formation of a shock wave. On the contrary, the bang could be produced by the explosive discharge of the LP itself: There are some reasons to retain that this explosive discharge could trigger, as a "chain reaction", the formation of further luminous plasmoids. In this case the two connected instruments cited above could allow to obtain the count of the number of plasmoids that are correlated to a single bang and then the number of plasmoids that are born from subsequent explosions, up to the decay of the explosion-triggered LP chain-process. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Atmospheric Physicists, Geophysicists, Acoustic Physicists, Astrophysicists, Electronic, Informatic and Thermal Engineers. References: 2,8,16,18,20,25,29,48VIII,59. 22 3.1.6 TECTONIC STRESSES OR SEISMIC PHENOMENA THEORY A sophysticated theory together with rough local measurements assert that rocks, under particular conditions of flexure, are able to produce both charged particles (via the "piezo-electric" effect) and electromagnetic waves: from the interaction Wave-Particle a Luminous Plasmoid can arise. In particular, high frequency waves heat and ionize the surrounding air and low frequency waves (in particular microwaves) condensate a formation of plasma. Moreover, the phenomenon is favoured by conditions of high humidity of the rocks: this fact can amplify the formation of charged particles. The luminous plasma which can be formed, according to calculations executed using non-linear fluidodynamics, is rotating in a vortex: the rotatory motion is caused by the microproperties of molecules and atoms. When the convective motion of a cluster of such molecules, as it happens in a convective atmospheric gas, is taken into account, one has a resultant motion of spiral or elicoidal type as a sum of the singular rotatory motion and the collective convective motion; the result of this process is that a just formed LP can move in a spiral fashion and leave spiral traces (as proved in laboratory experiments) on the ground (expecially if snow is present, as it occurred in Hessdalen). Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the specific context in which the Hessdalen-Phenomenon is thought to be a type of Earth Light (EL) plasmoid, whose birth mechanism is distinguished from the one that is thought to cause typically a properly known BL plasmoid. The spiral-shaped mark found on the snow-covered ground in the Hessdalen area, constitutes a fact of particular relevance. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, SS, RS, TS, VPS (Standard) - Multi Channel Spectrum Analyzer, Electrostatic Detectors, High-Dispersion Device for spectroscopy, Electrostatic Charge Inducing Device (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Observational-Statistical, Experimental, ComputerSimulated, Explorative. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT I - Test on Simoultaneity of Electrostatic Charges and EM Waves 1 After identifying, in Hessdalen, approximately the place where the light phenomenon is more frequent, it should be necessary to set to the rocks some devices for measuring Electrostatic Phenomena in order to be in a condition to know how long properly does a single electrostatic event last and how many electrostatic events occur in the time unit. It should be, parallely, necessary to use the EMS system in order to measure directionally the power, the frequency and the duration of an EM event. If a Multi Channel Spectrum Analyzer (MCSA) could be coupled to the standard EMS system, one would be able to monitor simoultaneously many hundreds of thousands of frequencies and determine at which peak-frequencies the EM emission reaches a maximum power (see Appendix E). Parallely, a simoultaneous measurement executed by means of the RS, TS, VPS systems, where VPS would be the main character, should allow to count the number of LP events occurring in a properly chosen time-unit. If the maxima of the LP events look to be spatially and temporally correlated with the maxima of the EM emission at some given frequencies and with a strong occurrence of charged particles, one could be quite sure that rock-flexures are a possible trigger mechanism for the formation of a LP. II - Test on Simoultaneity of Electrostatic Charges and EM Waves 2 Using the EMS system as a Transmitter and not as a receiver and coupling it to a device able to produce electrostatic charges, putting these two instruments in an open-air place ( on a boat in the sea, for instance) which cannot show at all light phenomena which are triggered by rocks, one could expect the occurrence of artificially-induced LPs. The power and the frequency of the EM transmission and of the charged particles injection could be varied at one's need until a LP appears. If the frequency of the light phenomena, determined using locally settled RS, TS and VPS systems, is correlated with the artificial manipulations of 23 the experimenter's devices, one could have some clue that the theory of Wave-Particle interaction could be the right one. III - Test on Correlation between Seismic Shocks and LP Countings A measurement executed by means of the SS system, in its turn coupled with the RS, TS and VPS systems, could furnish a further correlation: the conditions of tectonic stresses of the rocks (originating both EM waves and charged particles) are increased when the ground is subject to earthquake shocks, i.e., LP frequency is increased because of the occurrence of earth underground perturbations. This research could explain the very frequent occurrence of Luminous Plasmoids in some circumstances preceding or accompanying an earthquake also of very small power. IV - Test on Predicted LP Vortex Motion The predicted vortex-motion of the LP could be proved using the OSAS system in medium-high spectral resolution mode (λ /δλ = 104-105 Å), in order to try to observe the Rotational Broadening effect of the involved spectral lines: in this case the expected spectral lines would be bell-shaped and at least twice large as normal lines of a laboratory non-rotating gas. V - Spectroscopic Analysis and Search for Thermodynamic Parameters The OSAS system in its standard format (low-medium spectral resolution) can allow the measurement of the Collision-Broadening effect on every spectral line (see Appendix A): in this way it is possible to measure the Density and, then, the Pressure of the gas if the gas Temperature is known from the Planck curve of the global spectrum (3800-7600 Å). Such important measurements can be subject to a further confrontation with the Flux Variables (Temperature, Pressure and Density) that are the main unknown quantities present in the differential equations of non-linear fluidodynamics. VI - Search for Spiral Marks The continuous monitor executed by the EMS, RS, TS and VPS systems, centered on the use of VPS, could establish if a LP is descending or touching the ground. After determining exactly position and distance of this event (using RS), an helicopter (or some other very fast vehicle) could bring scientific and technical personnel in the place of the LP touch-down and a photograph could be locally taken of the mark left on the ground by the LP. In particular, in the case the photograph shows a spiral mark on the ground (made of burned earth, grass or snow), after processing this photograph with digital devices, it could be compared with analogue photographs (then digitized) of spiral marks obtained in control conditions of laboratory (existing) and with numerical simulations (theoretical image-processing) of the expected motion of the Wave-ParticleTriggered Vortex Plasmoid (WPTVP) theoretical model. In the case the three types of digitally treated marks coincide at a good level of approximation, one could have some clue more demonstrating that the WPTVP model is the right one. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Quantum Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Particle Physicists, Hydrodynamic Physicists, Geophysicists, Geologists, Informaticians, Electronic & Informatic Engineers, Explorators. References: 2,11,14,,16,25,37,48V-VIII-IX-X,56,58,59,60,68. 3.1.7 GAMMA RAYS FROM RADIOACTIVITY THEORY It is well known that Gamma Rays which are emitted from radioactive substances under or over the ground can be one of the primary causes of the atmospheric ionization and consequently a possible indirect cause of the formation of Luminous Plasmoids. These substances are almost always of natural origin. Some places, and Hessdalen could be one of them, can exhibit a higher or much higher radioactivity-driven Gamma-ray emission than other averagely radioactive places and radioactivity maximum emission can be circumscribed with very small areas as small as 100 m2 . 24 The radioactive contaminating substance can be also man-made, as in the case of malfunctioning medical cobaltum-therapy devices, nuclear centrals or even containers of radioactive residuals (coming from nuclear central processes) which may have broken. Regarding this second possibility, it is interesting to note that a video coming from the old DDR (supplied by the antropologist and "ufologist" Michael Hesemann) shows a cluster of light balls which are fluctuating just over a German Democratic nuclear central which was built with the known old russian low standard security. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, particularly, assuming a peculiar concentration of radioactive substances in the Hessdalen area. These substances would work as a source of atmospheric ionization and, consequently, as an extrinsic cause of the LP phenomenon. INSTRUMENTATION SET-UP: EMS, RS, TS, VPS (Standard) - Gamma-Ray Detectors (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Observational-Statistical, Explorative. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT I - Test on Natural Radioactivity Along all the area of Hessdalen in which light-phenomena are more frequently observed, a battery of powerful and portable Geiger counters should be placed in a fixed mode and a link to a computer input data control should be established. Also radioactivity analysis by means of Geiger counters mounted on helicopters, could be very helpful in localizing a Gamma-ray emitting epicenter and in measuring the quantity of Gamma rays which are operating in the low atmosphere. A Geiger counter mounted on a Baloon station could measure the radioactivity gradient (variation with height) in the lower and upper atmosphere. It should be necessary also to check, both on the ground and in the air, if radioactivity is subject to spatial and/or temporal variations. II - Test on Artificial Radioactivity It could be very important to verify if some residual of some radioactive material has been left or badly hidden in some place of the Hessdalen area by some not scrupulous people, industrial societies, uncovered incidents (NATO fighters or bombers fallen carrying one or more unexploded atomic bombs or missiles), unnoticed German experiments during World War Two or by other causes. III - LP Countings Once a system for measuring radioactivity is provided (as proposed in point I), it should be of fundamental importance to check if the count of the number of LP events, determined once a continuous monitor by means of the RS, TS, EMS and VPS systems is executed, is spatially correlated with the atmospheric ionization induced by Gamma rays in the interested area. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Atomic Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 2,6,8,16,25. 3.1.8 COSMIC RAYS THEORY Cosmic Rays, coming both from extra-solar sources (supernovae, novae, X-ray binaries, flare stars,T Tauri stars, nucleus SGA of our galaxy, active extragalactic nuclei) and from solar activity, are composed of a lot of high-energy particles: free protons, neutrons and electrons are the main ones. These particles can interact with the molecules of our atmosphere giving rise to auroral phenomena where the atmosphere is thinner, and are thought to be an indirect cause of the formation of Luminous Plasmoids because of their strong ionizing power. The Earth's magnetic field acts as a screen in blocking (to a certain extent) the cascade process of these particles in the most part of the regions of Earth, as in this case the magnetic field lines are 25 approximately parallel (and high over) to the Earth's surface. Towards the polar regions the magnetic lines fall on the Earth. If the occurrence of LP-type lights is particularly concentrated in the Hessdalen area, this could mean that: (1) the magnetic lines can fall in particular periods in this area, (2) the normally still parallel magnetic lines are broken or, for particular unknown causes, present holes just over the interested area. As the magneticfield lines have the function of a "rail" for cosmic rays, in the cases (1) and (2) cosmic rays could fall efficiently toward the ground or, at least, toward the low atmosphere. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, particularly, assuming a peculiar morphology of the local geophysical magnetic field, which drives cosmic rays as sources of atmospheric ionization. In this case, cosmic rays are considered as an extrinsic cause of the LP phenomenon. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, MS, RS, TS, VPS (Standard) - Satellite-Based Magnetometer (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational- Analytical, Observational-Statistical. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT Satellite-Test on Geophysical Magnetic Field and Test on LP Countings A specific magnetometer system mounted on an Orbiting Satellite, could measure in a topographic way the distribution of magnetic-field lines on Earth and verify if in the area including Hessdalen these lines are distorted or perforated (the same feature can be noticed in other places of Earth). As a symoultaneous measurement, the EMS,RS,TS and VPS systems based at Hessdalen, being VPS the main instrument, should allow to count the number of LP events per day. If the frequency of LP events is correlated spatially and temporally with a magnetic distortion or perturbance (in the sense that when the satellite "sees" a magnetic disturbance, LP frequency is high and when the satellite sees no magnetic disturbance, LP frequency is low or nihil) a statistical treatment of the data taken with both procedures (space-based and ground-based) could show that a constant rate of cosmic rays coupled with transient variations of the morphology of the local magnetic field could be the cause of the occurrence of Luminous Plasmoids in the Hessdalen area. The MS system could be used as well, together with all the rest of the proposed instruments. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Space Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Astrophysicists, Geophysicists, Electronic, Informatic and Space Engineers. References: 2,8,18,48XI,52 3.1.9 SOLAR ACTIVITY THEORY Previous statistical work asserts that some correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.56) is found between the occurrence of LP phenomena (including Hessdalen-Phenomena) and solar activity. The theory which is proposed to interpret this statistics asserts that a high concentration of solar particles, whose production is enhanced during the maximum phases of solar activity, can determine the beginning of weak nuclear reactions in the stratosphere and the consequent heating of the air up to plasma conditions. The atmosphere itself can play the role of a lens in focusing the corpuscolar radiation of solar origin: this is the driving mechanism which can give rise to the formation of LP events. Moreover, small random displacements and deformations of the atmospheric layers can determine a translation of the position of the focus, giving to the observers the illusion of fast intrinsic movements of the luminous plasmoid. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In a particular context of LP physics in which all the kinds of atmospheric plasmoids, including also Ball Lightnings and the Hessdalen Phenomenon, are tentatively explained as effects driven by a connection of high-energy particles, produced by solar activity, with mechanisms of atmospheric focusing. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, MS, RS, TS, VPS, WSS (Standard) - Baloon-Based Weather Station, Solar-Physics Observatory, Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer (Extra). 26 RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Observational-Statistical, Computer-Simulated. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT I - Test on LP Focusing The starting point should be doing a computer-simulation able to calculate the exact or approximate values of all the possible focal distances, once input values of the solar corpuscolar particle concentration, of the different possible thickness of the various atmospheric layers and of the translational and ascensional velocities of the atmospheric layers are inserted. The instrumental measurements which are expected to be executed could be fundamentally the following two ones: A - Metereological measurements of the air parameters (temperature, pressure, density, velocity, convectivity) taken at all the heights, should be obtained by means of a metereological station placed on a Baloon and compared, in case, with data obtained with the standard WSS system. B - Measurements of the LP height on the ground should be derived trigonometrically once the LP distance along the observing line and the angular height of the target are measured by means of the RS system. In order to correlate a radar track to an optically observed LP phenomenon, it is necessary that the VPS system (together with TS and EMS) is coupled with the RS system. If the measured LP's height fits at a good level of approximation the numerically-calculated atmospheric focal distance and if the real-time baloon measurements of the atmospheric parameters are consistent with the input atmospheric parameters inserted in the previous computer simulation in order to produce a given focus (output data = focal distance), then it could be possible to assert that the "atmospheric lens" mechanism is actually operating in focusing a Luminous Plasmoid. II - Test on Correlation between Solar Activity and LP Countings A better correlation factor (than 0.56) should be obtained in order to be able to assert that the plasma focusing mechanism is actually triggered by a maximum of solar activity. For this reason it should be necessary to verify with the best precision the state of activity of the sun. This operation could be carried out using two possible procedures: a remote one and a local one. The remote procedure requests a strict link, instant by instant, between the Hessdalen observational station and a Solar Physics Observatory. The solar observatory must be able to ascertain optically the occurrence of coronal prominences, photospheric and cromospheric flares and bursts, black spots concentrations in the sun's surface and, in the radio range, the occurrence of radio bursts. In particular, in the case of radiomeasurements it is necessary to observe, by means of a dynamic radio-spectrograph, the occurrence of radio-bursts which are caused by shock waves crossing subsequent layers of the sun: such shock waves give rise to the development of radio-bursts, which are characterized typically by a frequency- shift from metric to decametric waves. The local procedure regards the effective possibility to measure the radio-state of the sun by means of the standard EMS system, possibly in connection with a Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer (see Appendix E) and to detect the occurrence of magnetic storms by means of the MS system. Assuming that a symoultaneous optical observation of Luminous Plasmoids is operating by means of the RS, TS and VPS systems, where VPS would be used in this case for counting the number of LP events, it must be demonstrated that the increase of the number of LPs (per day, for instance) is strictly correlated with radio-bursts and magnetic storms from the sun. Analogue measurements could be done during the quiescent state of the sun, as a control sample. Then a complete demonstration of the discussed theory could come when correlations between the observed frequency of LPs and solar minima and solar maxima are established along more future cycles of solar activity (One Cycle ∼ 11 years). III - Test on Correlation between Cosmic-Ray Spikes Countings and LP Countings An additional very fortunate and simple circumstance of measurement could come from the use of the sole VPS system. As a solar burst activity injects in the atmosphere a great quantity of cosmic rays, the cosmic ray events can be very easily detected as Point-like Spikes in the CCD frames obtained from the VPS system (this fact occurs always when CCD stellar or extragalactic astronomical observations are executed in the periods in which the sun is active) . These spikes can occur, pointing the VPS in every direction of sky. 27 Then, if the number of spikes per day is correlated with the number of LPs per day, one could easily suspect that the Luminous Plasmoids are triggered by solar activity. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Atmospheric Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Solar Physicists, Astrophysicists, Space Physicists, Astronomers, Informaticians, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 1,2,6,8,14,16,25,33,48VIII-XI,52,56. 3.1.10 COSMIC MAGNETIC MONOPOLES THEORY The possibility of the existence of magnetic monopoles has been demonstrated by sound and mathematical theoretical models. It is assumed here that magnetic monopoles are injected into the Earth's atmosphere as an additional component of cosmic rays. So far noone of these particles has been observed in our atmosphere. Moreover, this possible cause of the formation of Luminous Plasmoids can be strictly connected with the "vorton" theory. A magnetic monopole consists of a quark-type particle with a very high concentration of magnetic charge. It can be said that a magnetic monopole could be a very efficient centrally-located confining mechanism of atmospheric ionized plasma and could explain the reason of the typicall ball-shape of a Luminous Plasmoid of BL kind. In this case it could be argued that a LP is a structure in magneto-static equilibrium where the force-balance is given, on one side, by the high temperature and pressure of the hot surrounding plasma and, on the other side, by the central magnetic force in the center of the LP, where the center of the LP could be also formed of a cluster of monopoles. Such an overall configuration could even explain the long duration of the light phenomena which are observed in the Hessdalen area. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, particularly, assuming a peculiar morphology of the local geophysical magnetic field which drives such cosmic particles. In this case it is assumed that such particles become themselves the nuclei of a Luminous Plasmoid, in order that they can be considered both as an extrinsic and as an intrinsic cause of the phenomenon. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, MS, RS, TS, VPS, OSAS (Standard) - Gamma-Ray Detectors, HighDispersion Device for spectroscopy, Magnetic-Field Inducing Device, Satellite-Based Magnetometer (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Observational-Statistical, Computer-Simulated, Experimental. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT I - Test on Magnetic Disturbances As such a structure would exert a direct interaction with the local geophysical magnetic field, it should be of importance to do accurate measurements using the MS system coupled with the EMS system. If a monopole-induced LP flies by the observational station, magnetic disturbances could occur as small-duration strong spikes which would be overlapped on the normal slow-variation magnetic fluctuation and (periodically) on magnetic active-sun perturbation. It should be crucial to simulate numerically the interaction of a magnetic monopole with the local earthly magnetic field, in order to obtain intensity, frequency and morphology profiles of a perturbation to be confronted to the ones which are expected to be directly observed. II - Test on Radioactivity and Search for Correlation with LP Countings As a magnetic monopole could give rise to a random or episodically varying Gamma-ray radiation (to be distinguished from the Gamma-ray radiation spontaneously emitted from the ground), it should be important to measure this phenomenological feature by means of Geiger counters able to detect every episodic Gamma-ray event with a strong temporal resolution. Such Geiger apparatuses should be uniformly spread all over the interested area. 28 Then, it should be essential to execute the count of the number of LP events per day, by using continuously the RS, TS and VPS systems (centered on VPS) and, in particular, to study the temporal and/or spatial variation of these countings. The number of LP events per day could be then correlated temporally and spatially with the number of Gamma-ray events per day and with the number of "magnetic spike" events per day. III - Test on Interaction between LPs As a monopole, in principle, can be positively or negatively charged, it can be reasonable to suspect that two monopole-induced Luminous Plasmoids characterized by equal or opposite magnetic charges, can interact repulsively or attractively. Such a behaviour and its evolution in time, such as a merge of two LPs, should be accurately recorded by the VPS and EMS systems. IV - Tests regarding Magnetic Effects on Thermal Radiation As a circumscribed magnetic field which is produced by the central magnetic monopole charge should be transmitted to the heated surrounding plasma, one could expect to measure the two possible phenomena: A - Each one of the spectral lines eventually produced by quantum transitions in the plasma, could be splitted in 3 or more components because of the Zeeman effect, which is typically produced by an inducing magnetic field: this effect could be well detected using a particular version of the OSAS system (guided by the RS, TS, EMS systems) in which the dispersing-element allows very strong spectral resolutions (of the order of λ/δλ = 105-106), in order to allow to obtain a good distinction of the line-splitting level and, from it, to obtain the intensity of the plasma-stimulating magnetic field. B - A certain quantity of free electrons, expecially if the plasma is quasi or totally ionized, could be fastly rotating around the magnetic center: this would result in a sort of non-thermal radiation (similar, at least in principle, to syncrotron), which is more often detected in micro-radio waves. This kind of radiation, whose spectrum is a typical "power spectrum" to be distinguished from a blackbody thermal spectrum, could be easily detected by means of the EMS system. V - Test on LP Acceleration As a magnetic monopole could be, in principle, accelerated by an EM field, it would be very interesting to use a solenoid-generated EM field, as an artificial stimulation, to be placed in the Hessdalen area, and to verify observationally (using the RS, TS and VPS systems) if possible fast movements of the LP occur. Alternatively, it could be interesting to use the EMS system as a power and frequency-modulated Transmitter, in order to test the possible reactions of such type of LP. VI - Satellite-Test on Geophysical Magnetic Field and Test on LP Countings The same satellite operations proposed in topic 3.1.8, connected with the determination of the frequency of LP events in the Hessdalen area using the RS, TS, EMS and VPS systems, could be applied also in this case, in order to verify if the suspected magnetic-monopole component of cosmic rays is affected by disturbances of the geophysical magnetic field. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Particle Physicists, Atomic Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Space Physicists, Astrophysicists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 1,2,11,16,25,48VII-VIII,50,52,60,61,65. 3.1.11 COSMIC MINI - BLACK HOLES THEORY Some physical cosmological models predict the existence of micro (atom dimension) and mini black holes (few mm up to cm dimensions) which can have been created in the first instants after the Big Bang. Miniblack holes could have been created also by some more recent processes in the astrophysical environment. 29 These objects could have been spread all over the universe and could give a significant contribution to the "dark matter" able to stabilize gravitationally a galaxy (including our one). There is a strict, theoretically calculated, correlation between the dimensions (diameter) and the life-time of such objects. For this reason the smallest ones should have a very short life-time, possibly because of quantum evaporation; the larger ones could have survived and be present also inside our solar system and could have grown in mass and diameter after "eating" much interstellar gas or nucleonic dark-matter (see 3.1.13). Their interaction with our atmosphere could come by means of different transportation vehicles: a cosmic ray component (only in the case of micro - black holes formed very recently) and a meteor-comet component (used in this case as a trapping device for mini -black holes). Once inside our atmosphere mini-black holes (or, less probably, micro - black holes) could encounter a great storage of "eatable" gas (gas accretion); for every single black hole, the result would be a surrounding ball of heated gas because of the thermal energy liberated by the gravitational collapse of this gas inside the black hole potential well. In this case one has a structure in hydro-gravito-static equilibrium, very similar in principle to a star, able to emit much light and to live as a luminous plasmoid for a long time. The form of the gravitationally trapped heated gas could be also disk-shaped in the case the black hole is rotating. According to some proposed models a magnetic field could be also present. How to connect this theory with the Hessdalen observed Luminous Plasmoids? The triggering causes of the Hessdalen light-phenomena could be exactly the same as the ones which are suspected to trigger LP events after the fall-out of cosmic rays, magnetic monopoles, baryonic matter, anti-matter and meteors: a distorted or perforated geophysical magnetic field and/or a low local atmospheric thickness. Periodicity (maxima and minima) of the Hessdalen-phenomenon could depend on yearly variation of the configuration of the local magnetic field and/or of the local atmospheric thickness. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, particularly, assuming a peculiar morphology of the local geophysical magnetic field which drives cosmic particles or a low thickness of the local stratospheric layer. In this case it is assumed that cosmic mini/micro - black holes become themselves the nuclei of a Luminous Plasmoid, in order that they can be considered both as an extrinsic and as an intrinsic cause of the luminous phenomenon. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, MS, TS, VPS, LIRS, OSAS, WSS (Standard) - High-Dispersion Device for spectroscopy, Baloon-Based Weather Station, Missile-Based Atmospheric Probe, Satellite-Based Magnetometer (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Computer-Simulated. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT I - Tests on Specific Predicted Spectroscopic Features It is very important to observe this object spectroscopically. From the features which are expected to be shown in the spectral lines of the heated circum-black hole plasma one could obtain the following informations: 1 - The gas inside the plasma, expecially if it is disc or elliptic-shaped, could be strongly rotating and a difference of rotation between the internal regions and the external regions of the plasma would occur in the form of a typical gaseous Keplerian motion: higher-excitation lines (nearer to the central black hole) should be more rotationally broadened than the lower-excitation ones. The gas Rotation, in general, gives rise to a (differential) Line Broadening in order that the line can be twice large in comparison with a line emitted by a non-rotating laboratory plasma at the same temperature. 2 - The spectral lines themselves should be subject to an additional broadening mechanism, the Gravitational Broadening, that is typically caused by a hot plasma which surrounds a relativistic source such as a black hole, in which every line assumes a very specific feature. 3 - When the atmospheric gas falls inside the potential well of the black hole, it increases gradually its infall-velocity: this occurrence should give rise to an additional line morphology which is called the Inverse P Cygni Effect. In this case a line is splitted into a stable emission component and into a red-shifted absorption component. 4 - If a magnetic field is present, every single line should be splitted into a, more or less, large number of components which are symmetrical in comparison with a central higher line (Zeeman Effect): the accentuation of this splitting effect can furnish precise informations on the intensity of the Intrinsic Magnetic Field of the mini-black hole. These very important spectroscopic features can be accurately measured only using medium-high or very high spectral resolution (λ/δλ = 104−106): for this reason the OSAS system, which should be mainly used in this specific research, should have a specific dispersing element which can be able to furnish a detailed 30 description of the observed spectrum. Low-Medium resolution dispersers, as those present in the standard OSAS system, are not sufficient. In order that the OSAS system can be used, one must associate this device to the EMS, RS and TS systems; in particular TS should be very precise. Moreover a computer-simulated model (properly a package) should be used in the post-observational analysis phase, in order that it can be possible to distinguish, by means of a "fit operation" executed on the observed spectral line, one specific line morphology (broadening or red-shifts) from the other: as what one would observe would be a superimposition of all the described 4 effects, it should be necessary to do a weighed average of the 4 singly computer-generated theoretical effects and then try to construct an "average theoretical line" in order to have a satisfactory fit with the actually observed line morphology. II - Laser Relativistic Test and Lidar Spectroscopic Test As a localized gravitational field can cause the deflection of a light beam, a test to be done, or tried, should be pointing a Laser beam toward this kind of LP at different distances from it until one observes a deflection: from the angle of deflection one can obtain the measurement of the supposed gravitational localized force. It is possible that very near the center, i.e. inside the plasma-ball, one can't observe anything specific as the laser beam could be absorbed or refracted. Moreover, the LIRS system (using a Lidar), once pointed to the LP, could give alternative precious informations on the nature of the hot substance of which the LP is made, as a stimulation-effect in order to allow one to know the reaction of a hot plasma just hit by coherent monocromatic radiation. Simoultaneously to the Laser-Lidar operations, it should be essential to execute two types of monitors: A - The LP plus the Laser (or Lidar) beam should be continuously filmed by the VPS system (accurately pointed to the target by means of the TS and RS systems), in order that from every given CCD frame one could get a photograph and then an exact measure of a possible beam deflection and/or its possible refraction or total absorption. B - The LP, when directly hit and excited by the Lidar beam, should be analyzed spectroscopically by means of the OSAS system (low-medium spectral resolution) in order to allow a better knowledge of the nature of the plasma, after forced atom recombinations and consequent photon emissions are induced by a coherent monocromatic radiation. III - Test on EM Disturbances The EMS and MS systems, simoultaneously with the operations described above, should be used in order to detect possible disturbances of the EM field. The RS system could be also important: as it emits typically microwaves against the target, it could be used as an EM stimulator on the plasmoid. An additional input of radiation on the LP could induce some transformation of its state and structure, which could be easily measured, in their turn, by means of the OSAS and VPS systems. IV - Test on Atmospheric Air-Parameters Modifications The WSS system, used in symoultaneous fashion with all the other instruments, possibly associated with weather stations placed on Baloons, should measure, instant by instant, all the air-parameters, in particular air convectivity, as it is expected that the motion of such type of LP could be well influenced by the atmospheric state of the air. Conversely, it could be possible that the LP itself, being a very hot object, can introduce considerable modifications of the air pressure, temperature and convectivity of the local air: in this case the motion (probably of random character) of the LP could be self-sustained for a certain time. V - Test on Intrinsic Parameters Variation A continuous monitor executed principally by the VPS system (together with TS and RS) should establish the exact life-time of such a LP, to be confronted with computer theoretical simulations regarding the predicted gas-accretion modes onto a mini-black hole; the simulation should also take into account the possible causes of explosion of these LPs. Moreover, a continuous monitor by VPS could establish if this kind of LP shows time-variations in luminosity and color: it could be that this fact can be triggered when the black hole-driven plasmoid crosses regions of air with different densities; in this case if the LP crosses a region of higher density it is expected that its gas accretion-rate increases as well, with the consequence that luminosity and temperature, proportional to the 31 quantity of "eated" gas, increase. In order to support this hypothesis, it would be necessary to have, using a particular version of the WSS system, the condition of local-air density instant by instant (and possibly in a quite wide range of heights from the ground). It is also expected that such kind of plasmoid, once it has grown in luminosity, temperature and dimensions (after increased accretion rate with time) tends to go upwards, as being an increasingly heated gas in a convective atmospheric regime: it could just look as "a spacecraft going back home". In this last expected effect, the VPS system together with the RS system should allow to obtain the measurement of the linear diameter growth; the standard OSAS system should furnish a measurement of the temperature increase by observing a blue Wien displacement of the Planck curve in the low-disperion overall spectrum (3800-7600 Å). The RS system alone could establish any distance and velocity increase with time. VI - Satellite-Test on Geophysical Magnetic Field and Missile-Test on Air Thickness Operations which are analogous to the ones proposed in topics 3.1.8, 3.1.10-VI, 3.1.12, 3.1.13 and 3.1.14-II could be executed in order to understand why mini-black-hole-driven LPs are concentrated in the Hessdalen area and why this concentration is time-variable. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Astrophysicists, Astronomers, Plasma Physicists, Space Physicists, Atomic Physicists, Relativistic and Quantum Physicists, Atmospheric Physicists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 1,2,6,11,16,17,18,25,27,38,48XII,50,52,58,60,61,68. 3.1.12 COSMIC ANTI-MATTER THEORY Theoretical models and particle-physics superprotosyncrotron accelerators have ascertained the existence of anti-matter: such substance, composed of anti-protons and positrons have a very short life-time as the collision with normal matter, composed of protons and electrons, gives rise to annihilation with the liberation of a great quantity of energy. Anti-matter events could come spontaneously only from space, in the form of a cosmic-ray component or, possibly, in the form of small meteors (an anti-matter meteor could be the cause of the Tunguska megatonic explosion in Siberia in 1908). Assuming that cosmic rays are largely the most common vehicle of anti-matter, such occurrence would cause annihilation when these cosmic anti-matter particles contact normal matter of which our atmosphere is constituted; if such objects could survive up to the lower atmosphere a strong localized transient ionization process could result in the forms of explosions of energy. The consequence of this happening could be that the frequency of Luminous Plasmoids could be highly increased. If, as it is further suggested in topic 3.1.14, the stratospheric layer over the Hessdalen area is very thin, the probability that some anti-matter survives up to the lower atmosphere before being subject to collision with normal matter, could increase consistently. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, particularly, assuming a low thickness of the local stratospheric layer. In this case it is assumed that such cosmic particles are a source of transient atmospheric ionization process and, consequently, an extrinsic cause of the luminous phenomenon. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, RS, TS, VPS (Standard) - All-Sky Photometer, Acoustic Detector, MissileBased Atmospheric Probe (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Observational-Statistical. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT Test on Photometric and Acoustic Correlated Transient Variations As it is expected that the Hessdalen lower atmosphere can be subject to transient micro or macro-explosions and consequent flashes coming from the liberation of thermal energy (skyquakes?), it should be important to use in a continuous fashion an All-Sky Photometer able to measure the average sky background luminosity emitted in the time unity (number of photons emitted from a 180° solid angle per second). After a peri od of a 32 month a Light-Curve (variation of light level with time) could be constructed, where some randomly spread maxima are expected. Assuming that, simoultaneously, a count of the number of LP events per hour is executed with the EMS, RS, TS and VPS systems (VPS the most important), it should be requested that the photometric light-curve of the sky-background is compared with an analogue curve whose peaks represent LP events. A further confrontation can be done with the simoultaneous measurements executed by means of an Acoustic Wave Detector and recorder; this instrument could measure the background acoustic noise and record possible jumps over a threshold value that can be caused by sudden explosions (to be distinguished by the continuous roar often occurring when a meteor crosses the atmosphere): the final result would be an Acoustic Curve (variation of acoustic noise with time) where some randomly spread maxima are expected (long-lasting low peaks = meteors, planes, short-lasting high peaks = explosions). If a reasonably accurate fit exists of the 3 proposed curves, one could suggest that LP events can be possibly triggered by antimatter-driven annihilation process in the lower atmosphere. The assertion of small thickness of the stratosphere over Hessdalen could be proved with proper missile probing, analogously to the procedure proposed in the further topics 3.1.13 and 3.1.14. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Particle Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Space Physicists, Astrophysicists, Acoustic Physicists, Atmospheric Physicists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 2,11,13,52 3.1.13 COSMIC BARYONIC MATTER THEORY A very recent discovery from extragalactic astrophysics has demonstrated, beyond every reasonable doubt, that every galaxy is filled with Dark Matter which is composed of not-radiating free protons and/or antiprotons and neutrons. This discovery stands on two observational facts: (1) Every galaxy is emitting much less light than it is expected from its calculated mass (via Virial Theorem and/or Rotation Curve), (2) Some dark objects, called MACHO, have been observed (1993) while they are exerting a gravitational-lens effect on the light of some celestial objects. Such dark matter, said also Baryonic Matter because it is composed of heavy nuclei, can be everywhere, also inside our Solar System. If some concentration of this matter is encountered by the Earth orbit and/or by the Sun's circumgalactic motion, it can be captured in the same way as a meteor or a comet. This matter is composed of nucleons and anti-nucleons which can't annihilate in space because of the very low spatial density of such particles. When a cluster of such heavy particles encounter Earth, anti-nucleons annihilate with nucleonic counterpart in our atmosphere giving rise to possible micro-explosions (see theory 3.1.12), while nucleons collide with the nucleons of our atmosphere giving rise to atmospheric molecular dissociation, atomic ionization and possibly to the creation of quarks. The interaction of cosmic nucleons with atmospheric matter-particles is of interest in this context. The formation of luminescence in the atmosphere is expected and possible auroral-type lights could turn on: auroral lights are, as well known, a characteristic of northern regions and are strictly connected to particleinjection from the sun. The points of importance here could be two: (A) The stratospheric layer over Hessdalen is abnormally thin, in order that the nucleon-driven ionization process occurs in the lower atmosphere giving rise to an almost local ionization process which could cause a strong frequency of LPs, (B) The local magnetic field lines are distorted or perforated, in order that cosmic nucleons cause a direct fall of particles in the very low atmosphere (by means of a "cascade process") or to the ground by causing an extra-ionization process which could cause a strong frequency of LPs. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, particularly, assuming a peculiar morphology of the local geophysical magnetic field which drives such cosmic particles or a low thickness of the local stratospheric layer. In this case, cosmic nucleons are considered as a source of atmospheric ionization and, consequently, as an extrinsic cause of the luminous phenomenon. 33 INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, RS, TS, VPS (Standard) - Missile-Based Atmospheric Probe, SatelliteBased Magnetometer (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Statistical. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT Test on Correlation between Auroral Light Increase and LP-Number Increase First of all, the intensity of possible auroral lights in the Hessdalen sky should be confronted with auroral lights in regions laying on the same parallel. If the nucleonic injection of cosmic origin in the Earth atmosphere is not a continuous process but only episodic, as it is expected when the Earth's orbit intercepts periodically a cloud of baryonic particles settled inside the solar system, periodic or semi-periodic increases (maybe in a "burst" fashion) of northern lights could be predicted. If such increases are not correlated with the periods of solar maximum activity, one could well suspect that baryonic matter is the main cause. If these auroral increases are correlated with analogous increases of the frequency of LP events, opportunely observed using the EMS, RS, TS and VPS systems, LP events could be thought to be the by-product of low atmospheric ionization induced by baryonic matter of positive sign. Moreover, experiments using atmosphere-probing missiles and/or magnetic field-probing satellites could measure respectively the local atmospheric thickness and the local magnetic field morphology. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Astronomers, Astrophysicists, Space Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Atmospheric Physicists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 2,18,25,33,40,52. 3.1.14 METEORS THEORY It is well known that when a meteor crosses the atmosphere, an ionization process in the surrounding air occurs; moreover, the friction with the atmosphere can produce transient variations of its convective and electrostatic state. These two mechanisms could trigger the formation of Luminous Plasmoids in the low atmosphere. If one supposes that over the Hessdalen area the upper atmospheric thickness is, transitorily, less than the average value on all Earth, one could suggest that meteors or fireballs of cosmic origin can survive, during their fall, as substantial objects also in the lower atmosphere over Hessdalen. The sense of this hypothesis is that the stratospheric layer over the lower atmosphere is not able to destroy, via friction-heating, the meteor at high altitude (as it usually happens): consequently friction-heating starts only on the low atmospheric layer by giving rise to strong ionization fronts at very low altitude, just where LP events are seen. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In the general context of LP physics and, particularly, assuming a low thickness of the local stratospheric layer. In this case, meteors are considered as a source of atmospheric ionization and, consequently, as an extrinsic cause of the phenomenon. The finding of a metal-like melted remnant (seen also by the undersigned, in march 1994) in the Hessdalen area could not be a simple chance. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, RS, TS, VPS (Standard) - Schmidt Telescope, Missile-Based Atmospheric Probe (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Statistical, Explorative. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT I - Test on Correlated Meteor-Trail Countings and LP Countings A small Telescope with a large field of view (Schmidt-type), in case settled in a station beside the Hessdalen area, could be able to photograph (via CCD imaging) every meteor trail: the telescope should be kept fixed towards the specific approximate direction of a meteor-shower radiant. Subsequently, a count of the number 34 of meteor trails per day could be executed and then compared with average counts (control sample) regarding other parts of the world where no typical LP event is observed. Assuming that a simoultaneous monitor of LP events is executed in the Hessdalen area by means of the EMS, RS, TS and VPS systems (centered on VPS), the number of counted LP events per day should be then compared with the number of meteor trails per day. If during a year, the variation of the frequency of LP events follows the variation of the frequency of meteor events (depending on the Earth position in its orbit in comparison with asteroid-type orbiting objects) one could assert that a meteor shower could be the triggering ionizing cause of LP occurrence in Hessdalen. II - Missile-Test on Air Thickness and Search for Meteoric Remnants Two things could be done in order to add strength to this theory: a - Probes on small missiles could measure the stratospheric thickness in regions where no BL plasmoids are observed; the same comparative operation could be executed launching the small missiles just from the Hessdalen area. b - A search of meteoric impacts or remnants (geological survey) could be carried out in the area of Hessdalen, in comparison with analogue survey in regions of the world where no BL event is observed. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Astronomers, Space Physicists, Atmospheric Physicists, Meteor Geologists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 2,8,10,18,25,29. 3.1.15 ARTIFICIAL ELECTROMAGNETIC CAUSES GLOBAL INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, MS, RS, TS, VPS, IRS, LIRS, OSAS, ACS (Standard) - UV Imager, Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (IRSAS), Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer, Photon-Counting Photometer, Light-Bulb Signal Device (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Observational-Statistical, Computer-Simulated, Explorative. GENERAL THEORY Some or all the Hessdalen Light Phenomena are Luminous Plasmoid formations which are triggered and/or altered by one or more external ground-based or flying devices. It is intended here that LPs are concentrations of plasma which is produced or intensified by a possible Wave-Particle Interaction caused by a not-natural or not-spontaneous mechanism: the observed phenomenon could resemble very much a naturally triggered phenomenon and it would be, intrinsically, a natural phenomenon. In this context, the real initial cause of the light phenomenon could involve the following types of cases. THEORY 1 The Radar itself, being a source of injection of microwaves, could create in certain circumstances of electrically-charged atmosphere the formation of a plasmoid. Moreover, it could interact with an already formed plasmoid, injecting in it a further quantity of energy: maybe the missing optical counterparts of many of the 36 radar-tracks recorded in Hessdalen during the first observational period could be due to microwave injection. In this case the LP could have been subject to a Planck temperature-shift from the optical to the Ultraviolet (UV) range, in order that the possibly already present far unnoticed optical objects disappeared from the optical sight of cameras and human eyes, just because of an unintentional radiating-machine interaction. Anyway there are some problems with this hypothesis: even if the LP changed from optical to UV, UV photoionization on the surrounding air should have caused a more or less fast radiationreprocessing in the optical, depending on the density and the extension of the sphere of air around the LP. 35 Moreover, the intermittent radar-desappearance of one LP which was optically in sight creates even more problems and complicates the puzzle. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In a particular context of LP physics, possibly related to what occurred during the preliminary measurements by the researchers of Project Hessdalen a decade ago. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT 1 I - Test on Radar-excited LP Light-Variation Once a LP light is observed it should be of importance to study its variational behaviour when the RS system is pointed: in this case it should be requested to change the RS wavelength and power of emission (the radar should have this possibility) and record all the possible LP reactions by means of a simoultaneous and continuous use of the EMS, VPS and OSAS systems. Such a procedure could be compared with the one in which a Laser or a Lidar (LIRS system) is used instead of the RS system. II - Test on UV Radiation An UV Imager (possibly an expansion of the VPS system) could be pointed to the exact point in which a radar-track is present (with no optical counterpart) in order to try to confirm the occurrence of a possible temperature up-shift, assuming that no significant optical reprocessing occurs. Anyway this operation has a fundamental limitation: hard UV radiation (100-1900 Å) is absorbed by the atmosphere if the air mass is large; hard UV measurements could be tried only if the radar-tracked distance of the target is less than some hundreds of meters. Soft UV radiation (2000-3300 Å) can be detected with much less atmospheric absorption. THEORY 2 The Hessdalen area doesn't seem to have (or didn't have more than 10 years ago) any concentration of ground-based electromagnetic devices (in private houses, industries or military drafts) which could excite the formation of artificially-induced Luminous Plasmoids. Maybe over the area there is (or has been) a particular concentration of AWACS, ELINT or ECM airplanes of NATO which, circling eventually over the area, could have injected additional "EM food" in order to trigger LP lights, to be added in case to electrostatic charges produced by the friction of these planes with the crossed air. It would be interesting to know if these effects can occur in the air when such very powerful devices fly over a given area and probably military scientists in the world didn't have the sufficient curiosity or time to notice this fact. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: In a particular context of LP physics, to be verified by means of experiments on the field able to reproduce one or more LP events. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT 2 Test on Correlation between Military Flybies and LP Countings A computer link could be strictly established with local airport control-towers by means of the ACS system, in order to identify all the airplanes passing over the Hessdalen area. Parallely a strict link with NATO authorities, once efficiently established, could allow to know if some kind of electronic and/or radar surveillance is acting over Hessdalen. A statistical comparation between the frequency of airplane-flyby on the area and the frequency of LP events (using EMS, TS, RS, VPS systems) could be easily established. THEORY 3 The Hessdalen area is a preferential site, as a very isolated place, of some kind of non-terrestrial airships or spaceships which, very often, cannot be visible at night and whose propulsion unknown mechanism can induce the formation of Luminous Plasmoids in our atmosphere. In which way could such spaceships reach Earth? Apart from what is currently and superficially asserted in the "UFO literature", it is very important to notice that some studies have been done by prominent scientists which demonstrated (directly or indirectly) that Earth can, in principle, be reached at every time by far more advanced civilizations than ours of various kinds (extraterrestrial, extradimensional, extratemporal) using approximately the following methods: 36 1 - Creation of space-time warping plus formation of a "wormhole" (a tunnel connecting the two edges of the warped space-time): the limit c of light-velocity would be respected while the distance would be enormously shortened. 2 - Ability of the mind to interact directly with the sub-quantum vacuum (see theory 3.1.16-II). This procedure could be exemplified with the following scenario made of sequential phases: a) A "Project of a spacecraft" is communicated to the vacuum state. b) The vacuum state reacts with the formation of a wave-front with infinite velocity. c) The wave-front is instructed to stop and fix "the project" in a particular space and/or time. d) The vacuum state produces a quantum fluctuation in the form of superquantum matter (our matter) which has been instructed to appear in our world as a "spaceship". e) After an instantaneous process, the "spaceship" can be free to fly as an airship in our atmosphere using a proper local propulsion, thus entering in the constraints of our space and time. 3 - Extraterrestrial bases are already present in our solar system since thousands of years and some orbiting space-stations are present in the Earth-Moon Lagrangian Points or in other zones which are hidden to human eyes or detectors: this kind of civilization is not able to manipulate space-time or the vacuum-energy storage in the sense that it has taken thousands of years to reach us, with more conventional systems as photon propulsion, for instance. It must be clearly said that of the about 150000 UFO reports which came up since 1944, noone is a proof, even the weakest one, that Earth is subject to alien visitation. Anyway no consistent proof of the contrary has been given yet. The point in the Hessdalen case is that visual witnessed reports of dark and/or metal-like objects exist indeed, but these objects have not been monitored with any professional or scientific instrumentation. More specifically speaking and according to the locally observed phenomena, the "Alien Hypothesis" could be characterized by the following three variants: (I) The spacecraft propulsion mechanism can induce electromagnetically and electrostatically Luminous Plasmoids in the Hessdalen atmosphere. (II) Some of the observed lights, in particular during the first observational stage in Hessdalen, were moving together maintaining the same mutual distance because they were attached to an optically invisible solid craft. (III) Some of the observed lights are totally illuminated crafts. Maybe all the three cases could occur in Hessdalen and it is not difficult to prove or disprove such an "exotic" theory, by using the same instrumentation chosen to test the other theories exposed in this work. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: (1) In a particular context of LP physics, to be verified. (2) In the general context of scientific UFO research. (3) Because the Hessdalen-Phenomenon, as an apparent LP phenomenon, is associated also (witness-reports) to sightings of metal-like flying objects. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT 3 I - Identification and Analysis of Dark Solid-like Targets causing Luminous Plasmoids Once a Luminous Plasmoid is optically sighted, the EMS, RS, TS, OSAS and VPS systems should try to track this target and to analyze its radiation. Parallely, the IRS system in its Wide-Angle mode should be used in order to allow a survey of a circular region of sky around the actually sighted LPs. A fast IR photo of that region of sky should be taken in the case a dark regular and geometric looking target appear in the near or far proximity of the LP (or LPs). The wide-angle mode of the IRS camera should be quickly substituted by the Tele-Photo mode whose purpose is of obtaining a very close zoom-like identification of the dark object. At the same time the RS system should detect radar-tracks of both a Luminous Plasmoid (or more than one) and a solid looking IR object (or more than one): after obtaining some VLP and OSAS frames of the LPlike light surrounding the solid target, the RS and TS systems should be adjusted in order to track only the solid object. An Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (IRSAS) should then be pointed to the dark target: this operation could evidence an excited spectrum, a semi-excited molecular structure or a microwave-heated metal-like surface: this possibility is allowed by the wavelength range expansion expected by the standard OSAS system (see Chapter 2.0). The EMS system should be associated , in a simoultaneous fashion, to the rest of all the instruments, in order to detect every possible EM disturbance; moreover, it should be of fundamental importance to identify the exact direction of origin of the EM source and to ascertain if this direction fits exactly the radar track of the IR dark, possibly solid, object. 37 * Very Important Note: In the cases that: (1) a constant monitor executed by the BW camera of the TS system (or using also the wide-angle mode of the VPS system) demonstrates that the Luminous Plasmoid (or Plasmoids) shows a very long relaxationtime (typical of the long-lasting Hessdalen-Phenomenon); (2) a constant simoultaneous execution of sequential OSAS spectra demonstrates that the Luminous Plasmoid (or Plasmoids) shows a line-profile characterized by a high level of Collision-Broadening, which is typical of a high-pressure plasma that should (for this reason) show a very short BL-like relaxation-time (see Appendix A); it is necessary to invoke an External Energizing Source: this external energizing source could be ascertained to come just from the IR dark and solid-like object, by means of the above cited procedures executed with the IRS, IRSAS and EMS systems just adjusted in order to track only the solid-like object. The evidence of small, apparently looking, plasma balls "dancing around" more or less large flying geometric solid objects (disk-like, egg-like, sphere-like) is present in very many UFO-witnessed cases: unfortunately no measurement of scientific value could be done and all the witnesses were of human-emotional kind. II - Identification and Analysis of Light Spots located on a Dark Solid-like Target The IR investigation, by means of the IRS system, could demonstrate very quickly that the light spots which are, in case, moving close by with the same velocity and direction of motion, could consist of some bright mechanism which is attached to a solid-looking dark object. This fact has been verified after an analogous case happened in Belgium (1990). An academic Computer-Image Analysis demonstrated that 4 observed and photographed light spots (the central one pulsating) co-moving in the sky were, actually, attached to an unidentified triangular dark object. Exactly the same kind of object has been photographed and video-filmed, in the same period, in France, Canada, USA and South America. After ascertaining this possible expectation, the operation to be done should be using the VPS and IRS systems simoultaneously, centering on the dark object. As the bright spots inserted in the dark object could be variable in luminosity and color, as well as the IR luminosity level of the dark object itself, a continuous monitor executed by the VPS and IRS systems could allow to obtain the construction of light-curves (timevariation of light with time). It can be expected that from light-curves some periodicity can emerge: this could give one some informations on the propulsion mechanism of the device that produces the light spots in particular. Moreover, a Fast Photometer, characterized typically by high time-resolution, or, alternatively, Time Series Fourier Analysis applied to the acquired VPS frames could establish if apparently constantly luminous light spots are the result of fast pulsations which are not identifiable by the human eye: this one could be a clue more in order to shed light on the propulsion mechanism. It can be easily assumed that analogue time-variation curves can be obtained using also the EMS and MS systems. Moreover, the OSAS system should take low-dispersion spectra of the bright spots in order to allow a spectral-line identification of the heated chemical substance producing such brightness; then the Planck curve obtained from the whole spectrum (3800-7600 Å) could allow a determination of the temperature of the bright spots, only in the case their emission mechanism is spectroscopically ascertained to be a thermal one. III - Identification and Analysis of Luminous Solid-like Targets If the bright lights observed in the Hessdalen area, or some of them, are "machines" themselves, one should observe a geometric totally lighted feature by means of the VPS system. In this case it would be of importance to measure the luminosity spreading all over the brightening surface and the time-variation of it, in order to get a clue on the propulsion system: this can be done very efficiently by means of the VPS system. In the case these brightening objects look at first as plasma-like objects (after a proper analysis by means of the VPS and OSAS systems) and then change in geometrically structured luminous objects (observed by executing a continuous monitor by means of VPS) one could confront with theory (1) and (2) of interstellartravel mechanism. The transformation process (also the inverse one) could be very fast but it could be observable by analyzing every single CCD frame of VPS obtained before and after the transformation: this one could be a very good chance in order that wormhole and/or sub-quantum theoretical calculations can be confronted with an experimental laboratory in the sky. 38 IV - Laser Tests on Relativistic Targets A Laser or Lidar (LIRS system) device could be pointed to the target in two cases: A - This device could be pointed towards all the types of solid-like objects (dark, partially luminous or totally luminous) at different varying distances to them, in order to observe possible positive or negative light-beam deflections which could be caused by a localized relativistic gravitational field, as a possible effect of the propulsion derived from energy extracted from a "captured" natural mini-black hole or from an artificiallyproduced mini-black hole, or by an anti-gravitational field possibly connected with some kind of propulsion mechanism. This operation should be filmed, instant by instant, by the VPS and IRS devices. B - More probably, the relativistic gravitational field could be the resulting effect of the formation of an "exit hole" of a locally warped spacetime region (wormhole). It could look just as a transient very bright plasma localization (the atmospheric gas would be heated to plasma conditions because of its violent fall into the gravitational well of the "exit hole") with, possibly, no apparent movement and with, presumably, a very short duration. The plasma-phase of the phenomenon could be immediately followed by a solid-looking (IR) object which could start to move in every direction. In this case, and only in the initial phase, the Laser or Lidar could be pointed towards a luminous plasmaconcentration (using the same modality as in the previous case) and not towards a solid object. In the case the IRS and VPS systems can observe, subsequently, a solid-like flying object just after the disappearance of the plasma-like light, one could demonstrate that someone else is able to travel by means of "wormhole-technology". V - Search for Target Reactions Once the structured character and the regular (or regularly-varying) pulsational character of the object is ascertained, a very powerful Light-Bulb system (very similar, in principle, to the RLS system, which is anyway used for other more basic purposes) could be used, together with direct Laser-Lidar pointing operations, in order to search for intelligent or structured reactions from the object. Both the Light-Bulb and the Laser devices could be intentionally pulsed using the following sequential procedure: (1) The possible light pulsation of the object or of part of it, is detected by the VPS system. (2) Using digital/analogic converters, VPS communicates in real time the detected light-variation to the Light-Bulb and to an accurately RS-pointed Laser. (3) The Light-Bulb and the Laser start to pulsate or vary at the same rate as the object. (4) If the object changes light pulsation-rate or variation, the Light-Bulb and the Laser counter-react and so on. Assuming that all the light-reactions from one object or from more objects simoultaneously are catched by the VPS system and recorded on VCR, it could be interesting (and not at all fanciful) to convert, in the data-processing stage, every Light Signal in a Sound Signal using a polyphonic digital synthesizer in connection with a polyphonic digital sequencer, in order to search for a logically-structured musical scale or the imitation of a known theme. In the case one has previously obtained a clear proof that the object is a piloted machine, one could assert that every reaction of it to light direct stimulation could be intentional: in this case all this research could shift to a SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) scientific investigation. VI - EM Detailed Analysis of the Targets The radio-frequency signals received from the EMS system could have a periodic pulsation rate or a regularly-variable pulsation rate because of the involved object propulsion, or even a logical or intelligent structure because of the use of EM devices for inter-communications (radio-like apparatuses, data-link-like devices etc.) or because of intentional coded-message transmission to the observers: these possibilities could be well verified using a Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer (MCSA, see Appendix E) in connection with the antennas of the EMS system. Being the simoultaneous multifrequency (from 105 to 107 channels) capability of signal detection over a wide range, in the actual possibility of current MCSAs (used in astrophysical and SETI research), it could be possible to verify if the received signals have a Temporal Coherence, Regularity and Persistence, Periodic Oscillations from a peak-frequency to another one, periodic Amplitude Variability or periodic Oscillations from Left-hand to Right-hand Circular Polarization. Moreover, it is expected that an intelligent coded-message candidate should have a bandwidth narrower than the one that characterizes the known emission or absorption lines. 39 VII - Daylight Photometric Analysis Daylight CCD photographs and/or videos, obtained by means of the VPS system suitably guided by the EMS, RS and TS systems, of solid or metal-like UFOs, could provide precious informations on the level of reflected sunlight. Subsequently, laboratory and computer pictorial models simulating the light reflecting (but also refracting and diffracting) level of different known materials with different levels of porosity, shagreening and transparency could be compared with the obtained VPS images. This analysis could furnish one more verification that the Hessdalen Lights are strictly related to flying machines. VIII - Drawing and Analysis of Ground Samples In the case the ascertained flying machine is observed landing in the area, it is better to wait it takes off, as the radiation field emitted by its propulsion mechanism could be locally very dangerous. After the object has gone away, a group of persons could reach very fastly (by helicopter, for instance) the landing site: after ascertaining that no dangerous radioactivity is present in the circum-landing area, the print left on the ground by the object should be accurately photographed and some ground-samples (plus control samples around the print) should be taken. A further procedure of laboratory chemical-physical mass-spectrometry could prove that the ground has been heated by microwaves of a specific power and frequency. Very prominent previous analyses executed in France (GEPAN - 1983) and Italy (Pisa University - 1990) with Lab Differential Calorimetry demonstrated that some ground-samples contaminated by a landing object were heated by means of a mechanism which emits microwaves. INVOLVED SCIENTISTS: Radiation Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Atomic Physicists, Astrophysicists, Electronic Physicists, Particle Physicists, Quantum and Subquantum Physicists, Relativistic Physicists, Theoretical Physicists, Astronomers, SETI Astronomers, Logicians, Physical-Chemists, Chemical, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 1,2,5,6,8,12,16,19,22,23,24,25,26,28,29,31,35,36,37,39,44,45,46, 48VIII-XII,49,53,54,55,56,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,66,67,68,69. 3.1.16 QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS OF THE VACUUM STATE THEORY Rigorous theoretical calculations are able to predict the existence of a fifth force-field which could be added to the other 4 known force-fields, in order to allow the explanation of some anomalies encountered in the physical world. These anomalies are well observed in Chaotic Structures of the known physical world: one of them is Turbulence. Theory says that there is a strict interaction between the known world, made of matter and energy, and the inter-quantum Vacuum State, which is supposed to be full of energy in its potential state. The forces exerted by the known quantum matter and super-quantum matter (quanta + atoms + molecules + molecular aggregations) on other quantum and super-quantum matter, can produce deformations in the rest-state of the vacuum: in these situations the vacuum can become unstable and fluctuations can arise and act on quanta in the form of a stochastic force which is similar to the Brownian motion in a fluid. Recent theories assert that all matter and radiation which is present in our world is the result of fluctuations from the vacuum state: the Big Bang could have been a "conscious quantum fluctuation" of the vacuum state. The particles emerging from the vacuum are called "solitons": they are made of quantum matter and appear as non-linear waves inside a turbulent mean. In this context LP plasmoids could be the consequence of the rise of a soliton inside our world. Possible vacuum stimulation processes in the Hessdalen area could be: 1) From Natural or Artificial causes which involve atomic or molecular disturbances: storms, earthquakes, landslides, meteor showers, supersonic bangs by airplanes, increased frequency of normal flybies of airplanes, artificial fires, explosive activity inside local mines, flybies of UFOs (luminous or not). 2) From Natural or Artificial causes which involve disturbances of the electromagnetic field: lightnings, increase of the intensity of the auroral lights, passages of UFOs (luminous or not), utilization of particular electric machinery, lasers 40 or stroboscopic lights used at discoes-restaurants-popular feasts. 3) From Artificial causes which involve disturbances of the biological sphere: systematic cuts of trees or plants, killing of animals, sudden death of persons, transfer of a group of animals into or away from the area. Living organisms are super-quantum structures (quanta + atoms + moleculas + cells + animate matter) which exert an interaction with the surrounding inanimate environment: for this reason it could be expected that a sudden break of this equilibrium can stimulate a reaction from the "local vacuum" sub-quantum structure. 4) From Psychical causes which involve disturbances in our super-quantum world (quanta + atoms + molecules + animate and inanimate matter). Some mathematical theory and qualitative sound physical models (as the one proposed by the physicist W.Pauli applied to the "syncronicity theory" by the psychoanalist C.G.Jung) suggest that psychical powers (as telepaty, telekinesis, poltergeist, oopart) do exist but are not at all something "paranormal" or "trascendent". In this framework the human mind is considered as a powerful tool in order to connect living systems (and maybe also not-living systems) straightly to the energetic sub-quantum vacuum. In this case vacuum could be stimulated straightly, i.e. bypassing the stimulation of the quantum or superquantum world: the result could be a fluctuation of the vacuum which is apparently spontaneous and which could give rise to the formation of condensations of matter and energy in the form of LP plasmoids. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomena: In the general context of a future experimental development of sub-quantum physics, where the Hessdalen area would be a privileged field test-laboratory. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, RS, TS, VPS (Standard) - Psychic Talents, TAC-Electroencephalograph (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Statistical, Statistical, Theoretical. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT It is not possible to measure the vacuum itself but it is, in principle, possible to determine statistically its effects in our world. I - Test on Correlation between Occurrences in Hessdalen and LP Countings In the cases 1), 2), 3), the things to be done could be three: a) Annotate in a proper system of computer filing and data base all the happenings occurring in the valley of Hessdalen, day by day, year by year. b) Use the usual set of EMS, RS, TS and VPS systems, centered on VPS, in a statistical fashion, i.e. in order to allow to obtain the count of LP events per day, assuming also that every single event is accurately dated. c) Search for a causal relation (procedure of syncronization) between every event described by the operation a) (and their dayly frequency) and every detected LP event (and their dayly frequency). II - Test on Correlation between Psychic Power and LP Countings In the case 4) the following procedure could be used: Some experimentally well known "psychic talents" could be brought to a place in the center of the lightphenomenological Hessdalen area: they could be commanded by a staff of biophysicists to concentrate their mind on every mental image they prefere. Simoultaneously their brain should be monitored with TACencephalographs. Parallely, the EMS, RS, TS and VPS systems, centered on VPS, should be able to record every single LP event and determine if a frequency of LP per hour exists. At the end one could obtain the following curves: (1) the curve of the time-variation (or histogram) of the encephalographic track of every single tested talent plus the weighed average of all the individual curves, (2) the curve of the time-variation (or histogram) of LP happenings. If a syncronization occurs at a good level of approximation, one could say that the Luminous Plasmoids are triggered by the psychic talents. In this case the plasmoid phenomenon could be suspected to be a directly induced quantum fluctuation of the vacuum state (which could then result in the possible formation of a completely materialized object). The same experiment could be repeated in places other than Hessdalen, where LPs have never been observed (as it has been done with some success in various places of the world under the control of scientists): if the frequency of the LP phenomenon is there less or doesn't happen at all, this should mean that something in the area of Hessdalen is able to trigger or support a psychic stimulation of the local subquantum vacuum state. INVOLVED SCIENTISTS: Theoretical and Experimental Physicists, Statisticians, Informaticians, Biophysicists, Medical Doctors, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. 41 References: 2,5,11,35,37,47,48IX-XIII,49,53,55,62,64,67. 3.2 RADIATING MATTER OF PARTICULAR STATE 3.2.1 ANTI-PLASMA LIVING IN OUR ATMOSPHERE THEORY Even if a particular self-consistent theory doesn't exist yet, many observational facts connected with particular hypotheses describe some peculiar plasmoids showing a behaviour which resembles the Hessdalen Phenomenon. In most cases these lights have been observed near Volcanoes or similar Earth's features. Why these objects are just manifesting in a place like Hessdalen, where no apparent prominent source of natural or artificial source of "feeding" energy exists, is still a mistery. This kind of plasma-like matter can well resemble Luminous Plasma Objects, but with some relevant observational peculiarities: 1) The relaxation-time is very long: from hours up to even days. 2) The dimensions can be enormous: from tenths to hundreds of meters. 3) Their consistence looks sometimes transparent, with bubbles of different luminosity inside, and sometimes opaque, with apparently structured geometric form. 4) Their luminosity can range from dark and/or IR-radiating mode, to a weak luminosity (50-100 watts), up to very high luminosity (Kilowatts to Megawatts). 5) They can present anisotropies or protrusions resembling the form of laser-like beams. 6) They have been observed in all the possible forms (from globular to cylindrical) and in a strongly morphological time- variational behaviour. 7) They seem to interact very strongly with electromagnetic or energy-producing sources (radioes, TVs, nuclear or electrical centrals) and seem to be able to amplify radio-waves: this characteristic could come from a very strong magnetic field of their own. 8) In many cases detonations can be associated to these objects. 9) At their passage, they can deposit some kind of gelatinous or cobweb-like ("angel hair") substance which can vaporize in hours or even minutes. The most important variational properties of these luminous objects are the following ones: (A) They tend to contract when subject to heat sources: this is the reason why this substance has been called "anti-plasma", as a sixth state of matter. (B) They are subject to pulsation at various rates. (C) They have photo-kinetic properties, in the sense that they are attracted to every source of light. The main hypotheses which can emerge from all these observational facts are the following ones: I - The functional mechanism of these objects involves the transformation of absorbed photons into electrons, electrons constituting the internal energy storage of these objects. II - The molecular and/or atomic motion of this substance is "self-syncronized", in the form of a natural computer able to constitute a molecular-atomic network of neural type: this network can regard both every single object and a colony or cluster of merging (or apparently in quasi-geometric formation) objects; for this reason a form of primordial "non-molecular intelligence" has been suggested. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: Because of some observational similarities with the Hessdalen Lights. In the general context of a future branch of physics whose purpose is the study and the utilization of new forms of energy: the Hessdalen area would be an ideal natural laboratory because of the high frequency of light phenomena. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, MS, RS, TS, VPS, IRS, LIRS, OSAS (Standard) - Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (IRSAS), Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer, Photopolarimeter, Acoustic Detector, Light-Bulb Attracting Device, Ground-Based Light-Emitting and Testing Container, On-Site Mass Spectrometer (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Experimental, Explorative. 42 PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT IN GENERAL Search for a Multi-Frequency and Time-Variable Profile It must be said that, because of the very many kinds of observed manifestations of these objects, the use of a very large number of instruments is requested. In particular, together with the RS and TS systems, the EMS, possibly integrated by a Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer, MS, IRS, VPS and OSAS systems should be used simoultaneously. In this case the preliminary goal would be of obtaining an overall multi-frequency time-variable profile. The intermediate goal should consist in searching for correlations between all the variable parameters in order to obtain a clear picture of a regular or periodic "action-reaction propulsion mechanism" (like light-feeded and not waterfeeded octopuses). The final goal should consist in interpreting these correlations in the framework of the known physics: in this case the intervention of bio-physicists could be substantial. IN PARTICULAR I - IR Photometric Identification and Analysis The IRS system could be essential in this research for two reasons: the first reason is that these light phenomena seem to "live", in their rest-state and in the absence of energetic stimulation, in a low-energy IRradiating state. The RS, TS and IRS systems could be the ideal monitor-platform. The second reason is that the IRS system itself is very sensible to heat sources (also the weakest ones): this could allow to suggest (but not guarantee) that these objects are effectively working with a thermal process. It should be very important to have a Surface Intensity IR profile of these objects in order to know how luminosity is distributed inside the surface and if this distribution varies with time. II - Test on Radiation Mechanism The best test to ascertain that these objects are working with a thermal process should be of using an IR Spectrum Analyzer (IRSAS) in order to search for excited states of atoms at low temperature. If, instead, excited molecules and not atoms, are involved, it should be expected to detect rotational-vibrational molecular processes in the form of emission bands which are more or less large, ample or blended. A simoultaneous use of the OSAS system (in case coupled with the LIRS system), when the object is in sight, could allow to obtain analogous determinations: in the case of excited atoms it is expected to observe emission lines which arise from a typical thermal process. A further merge of IR (7600-11000 Å) and optical (3800-7600 Å) overall spectra (obtained during the analysis phase) could allow to build a very complete Planck function, which can furnish a very precise value of the object temperature. A time-variational behaviour of the overall IR+Optical spectrum (obtained taking sequential OSAS and IRSAS spectra), i.e. measuring the blue and/or red shift of the peak of the Planck curve in comparison with a wavelength scale, could tell one how the object temperature varies. III - Test on Transparency Level A check of the level of transparency or opacity of the luminous object, could be carried out using direct Laser or Lidar (LIRS system) stimulation towards the object and verifying if and how much the L. beam is refracted or absorbed. IV - Test on Optical Polarization A Photopolarimeter (of the type used in some astronomical observations) could be connected to the VLP system in order to verify what kind of polarization characterizes the light object and, for standing-still targets, if the optical polarization is time-variable. This operation could be coupled with the use of the EMS system in order to study polarization effects in the radio-frequency range. V - Test on Reactions from the Object It should be tried to attract the light objects pointing in their direction beams of radiation with varying power and wavelength: fixing the power, the wavelength could be varied or vice-versa. At this point it is asked to know: 43 (1) If/how the object luminosity and, in case, luminous pulsation rate, varies at a given fixed injected frequency, if the injected power varies and vice-versa. (2) If/how the object velocity and direction of motion (in comparison to the observer) varies when the artificially-injected power at a given fixed frequency varies (or vice-versa). (3) If/how some correlation exists between the variations of the luminosity, of the color, of the dimensions and of the velocity of the object. The beams for the object stimulation could be obtained doing a proper modification of the RLS system (which is used, normally, for other as well important reasons): in this case everyone of the light-bulbs, which are thought in this case to be settled on a linear (or curvilinear) disposition, could be set in order to emit at a given fixed frequency (from 3800 to 11000 Å, using proper filters on the normally white lights), being everyone power-modulable. The movement of every light-bulb of the modified RLS system should be radarsyncronized in order that all the other radar-guided instruments (TS, VPS, IRS, VLP in particular) can record the "object reactions" when it is beam-stimulated. VI - Object Attraction and Capture, Laboratory Tests It could be necessary to settle near the Hessdalen general instrumental platform a Opened Container (in a word, a "trap") inside which a wavelength and power-modulable Light-Bulb is contained: the light object should be attracted inside the container. When/if the light object is inside, the opening should be closed using a telecommand device. At this moment the true local-laboratory experiments could be initiated. It is assumed that inside the container it is possible (by means of external devices attached to the container) to measure all the essential parameters of the captured object, as the intensity of electric current and of magnetic field, temperature, pressure and integrated light (here, at zero distance) by means of a photoelectric device which transforms photons into electrons: this one should be the Passive Procedure. The Active Procedure would consist in varying some intrinsic parameters of the container itself: temperature, light intensity of the (still operating) Light-Bulb and electromagnetic field. This procedure should be used in order to study the reactions of the trapped object after proper stimulations. In particular, a deliberate increase of the temperature inside the container could allow to verify the effective capability of the object to contract: it is asked at which maximum temperature the object can decrease to the dimensions of a point (or even disappear). A particular version of this experimenter-container, where only the attracting Light-Bulb device is present together with a local temperature variator, could be used only to test the object expansion once subject to a sudden very low temperature level: if the temperature decrease is fastened, an explosion of the object could be expected. This one could be the mechanism by means of which detonations have been heared by witnesses: this mechanism can be occurring when the object, attracted by the light of the sun, goes up until it reaches a region of the atmosphere where a sudden local temperature-decrease is present. VII - Search for Correlation between Acoustic and Photometric Emissions A possible correlation between the sound, in particular of detonating character, and the light emitted by the object could be searched, using an Acoustic Detector in a clock-synchronization and connection with the VPS and IRS systems. VIII - Spectro-Chemical Analysis of Released Substances Every kind of gelatinous or cobweb-like substance in case deposited by the passage of one of these light objects, should be collected, expecially in places where an object stood still or landed, very quickly and analyzed with an on-site Mass Spectrometer, in order to ascertain its chemical composition. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Radiation Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Atomic Physicists, Thermal Physicists, Geophysicists, Atmospheric Physicists, Biophysicists, Biochemists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 2,3,6,9,16,25,26,29,30,32,48VIII-XIV,58,59,62,63,64,68,69. 44 3.2.2 PRE-BIOTIC RADIATING MATTER THEORY This kind of luminous objects seems to resemble in many aspects the precedent case. The main differences seem to be that this kind of object can be observed in every place of Earth and at every time of the day and that an energy or heat source is not the only cause of its appearance. These objects have been observed mostly in the near IR (7600-13000 Å) and more seldom in the optical: in both cases they appear as "luminous amoebae" or protozoic-like apparently living forms. In addition to presenting almost the same behaviour as the one observed in the "anti-plasma" luminous objects, the following apparently distinctive features have been observed: 1) They can cause pendular oscillations of radioactivity in a "breathing fashion". 2) Their radioactive emission disappears once a light-spot is pointed to them. 3) If a Compass is posed under a fixed object, which is standing still in the air (ascertained with IR viewer/goggles or seen visually), the compass-needle starts to rotate, expecially if the experiment is done in the proximity of a magnetic meridian. 4) They can be subject to "bursts of energy", so that they can appear suddenly as very luminous optical objects. 5) Their photographic images are subject to rotational diffraction. 6) When the optical object is sighted, some sort of "optical waves" appear around it, resembling the pressure-waves exerted on the air by the explosion of a bomb. 7) When they accelerate, the pulsation-rate increases. 8) When a radar device injects microwave radiation towards the object, the object reacts changing form or luminosity. 9) When they, once optically appeared, pass over the observer, sounds similar to humming and whistles are heared. 10) Some animals result to have died after being subject to an interaction with these objects and their bodies have been found partially or totally dewatered. The main theory which tries to explain such strong features asserts that these luminous things are a variable form of bio-energy which is born together with the birth of our universe and which is characterized by a so called "orgonic potential": in this very exotic framework a strict interaction with living organisms on Earth is supposed to be acting. Pertinence to the Hessdalen-Phenomenon: Because of some observational similarities with the Hessdalen Lights. In the general context of future branches of physics and bio-physics whose purpose is the study (and the possible utilization) of a new form of energy and/or of an alternative form of non-organic life: the high frequency of phenomena detected in the Hessdalen area could render this area an ideal field laboratory. INSTRUMENTAL SET-UP: EMS, MS, RS, TS, VPS, IRS, LIRS, OSAS (Standard) - Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (IRSAS), Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer, Gamma-Ray Detectors, Acoustic Detector, Photopolarimeter, On-Site Mass Spectrometer, Light-Bulb Attracting Device, Light-Emitting and Testing Container, Laboratory Animal Samples (Extra). RESEARCH CHARACTER: Observational-Analytical, Observational-Statistical, Experimental, Explorative. PROCEDURES OF MEASUREMENT IN GENERAL All the measurement which are proposed in the previous topic should be used also in this particular case. IN PARTICULAR I - Test on Radioactivity Very powerful Geiger counters, spread in a fixed position all over the Hessdalen area and linked to a common control computer (placed in the observing station) could determine every kind of radioactive contamination from objects which are passing over the ground and, if possible, by means of a good timeresolution, determine, in the cases in which the objects are standing near the detectors, the time-variability of the emitted Gamma-ray power. 45 Simoultaneous stimulations by means of light-beams of variable power and frequency (using the same kind of Light-Bulbs described previously) could ascertain the occurrence of a transient disappearance of radioactivity. Parallely, the IRS, VPS and OSAS systems could establish at which level of luminosity, color, wavelength range and excitation-ionization state of the luminous object, the radioactivity disappears. An analogous use of the EMS, possibly integrated by a Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer, and MS systems, could establish the corresponding levels of the emitted radio-frequency radiation (frequency, power, polarization) and magnetic field (power, sign, polarization) of the target when it is intentionally hit by light beams. II - Test on Correlation between Radar-Wave Injection and Object's Light Changes The Radar device could be used as a microwave-transmitter to the object in order to stimulate it: the radar frequency and power could be varied as well. Parallely every change in luminosity and color (via IRS and VPS), excitation-ionization state (via OSAS, IRSAS), EM radiation and magnetic field (via EMS and MS) should be recorded. III - Test on EM Emission Every changement in the general EM behaviour of the object should be monitored using the OSAS, IRSAS, MS and EMS systems, in the moment in which the object change from IR to Optical mode of radiative emission. IV - IR Countings The IRS system in its Wide-Angle Mode should be used in order to allow to count how many IR-radiating objects are present in a given solid angle of sky at a properly chosen time-unit. Such a statistical count should be then confronted with the possible simoultaneus rise of EM radio-frequency radiation: confrontation would be done in this case with the directionally-determined burst of EM radio power occurring at a properly chosen time-unit. V - Search for Correlation between Velocity and Pulsation-Rate The RS system coupled with the VPS system could determine if a correlation exists between the object's velocity and the object's pulsation-rate. Moreover, possible apparently fixed-light configuration of very fast objects could be analyzed applying Time Series Fourier Analysis to VPS frames. VI - Search for Correlation between Acoustic and Electromagnetic Emission An analyzer of acoustic emission and recorder should be syncronized with the VPS, OSAS, IRSAS, MS and EMS sistems in order to correlate the intensity, the amplitude, the duration and the wave-form of a given detected sound with the general electromagnetic state of the object at a given time. The knowledge of the time-variation of these correlated parameters should be requested. VII - Search for Effects produced in the Biological Environment A group of Laboratory-Rats could be settled inside a box which is very near to the "trap-container" (discussed in the previous topic): after the exit (radiatively stimulated) of the luminous object from the container, the biological state of these animals could be checked; in particular blood-analysis or biobsies of wounded or dead animals could be furtherly analyzed with electronic microscopy in order to ascertain possible cellular modifications (the perturbed animal samples should be obviously confronted with control samples of unperturbed animals). Conversely, previously ill animals could be placed in the same area in order to observe every possible changement of their vital state. SCIENTISTS INVOLVED: Radiation Physicists, Plasma Physicists, Atomic Physicists, Thermal Physicists, Acoustic Physicists, Biophysicists, Biologists, Electronic & Informatic Engineers. References: 2,3,4,6,9,16,25,29,30,32,48VIII-XIV,58,60,61,62,63,68. 46 4.0 CONCLUSIONS The Hessdalen Problem which is planned to be systematically investigated is very puzzling and no "standard theory" seems to fit the actually observed facts in a complete and satisfying way. Only an adeguate instrumentation set-up can expand the proposed theories in a hopefully unified form, by allowing the subsequent execution of a rigorous scientific analysis. At the moment no evaluation or discussion of the exposed theories can be possible until one can get more data. The only possible discussion to be done now should come from debates between more scientists and not from a sterile monologue. Anyway, some fundamental observations can emerge from the given work: I - Many of the different theories presented here can be proved or disproved using just the same instrumental set-up (standard or extra). II - Many of the theories themselves, once prominent measurements are executed, could be found to be simply different aspects of a common triggering phenomenon: for this reason the main goal of this research should be of reducing at a minimum number the number of the proposed theories. III - The instrumental-observational phase of this research is intended to be both passive and active: in the first case the light phenomenon is only measured, in the second case the phenomenon is measured only when an artificial stimulation of it is acted by the observers. Some of the additional proposed instrumentation systems, leaving out of consideration by now the requested financial costs, are aimed to an ideally complete solution of the problem (it is a personal point of view). Anyway it must be also observed that the instrumentation platform and informatic architecture proposed by the researchers of Project Hessdalen can furnish alone sufficiently prominent results and that it is itself indeed the fundamental basis for the procedure of data acquisition. Final Methodological Observations It is very important to evidence a fundamental methodological rule and attitude that should be adopted in the further stage of the operational investigation on this problem. Only few preliminary data could be necessary in order to address the scientists to the right main road that brings to a correct interpretation and, possibly, solution of the problem: it is not indispensable in this case to start to collect a large amount of blind data for a long time, in order to build graphs or statistics that could result to be of catatonic character if not promptly interpreted. Simply, the scientist involved in this research should behave like a "skipper" able and ready to change direction (or to do also inversion) of motion after a very careful control of the wind-situation. For this reason, the initial collection of data should be done just in order to see "where the wind is blowing" (just like by means of a wollen-yarn binded to the spinnaker-chord). The subsequent phase should consist in launching the sailing boat to the right direction. With this method, one wants to say that the initial measurements should be necessarily done to know where and how to concentrate all the intellectual energies and by means of what kind of further and more expecialized instruments one should start to run towards the goal. Thus, the first measurements should be necessarily preliminary ones and shouldn't request such a strong economical support. My personal point of view tells me that the fundamental instruments with which to start could be the following ones (almost all of standard type): EMS, RS with telemetric and imaging capability, TS, IRS, OSAS, SS, MS, VPS, LIRS, WSS, Electrostatic Detectors and Gamma-Ray Detectors. It is most fundamental that (not necessarily many) preliminary data are processed at once, in particular EMS, VPS and OSAS data, by means of the best available and more suitable software packages, and then time-synchronized in order to search for the first correlations. This means that, while the initial dataacquisition stage should have a preliminary character, the initial data-processing stage should have already a deep character. What to do then? In the case the initial data don't result to be sufficient, the dataacquisition stage should be repeated in an amplified form. On the contrary, in the case the initially acquired data result to be sufficient, one could be in a condition to know how much money has to ask and which expecialized instruments to buy, for the further more deepened research. It is very important that this research can be executed by the following personnel: (1) Electronic Engineers and Computer Experts. 47 (2) Theoretical and Experimental-Observational Physicists, of the Micro (nuclear physics) and Macro (astronomy) branches, of both Analytic and Synthetic Attitudes. (3) Experts of the problem: cultured persons with scientific background that have seen, searched or personally explored the phenomenon. It is also important that creativity of individual minds (scientists or technicians or experts) can be encouraged, even if in the framework of a rigorous constructive criticism and of a cross-confrontation with the actually observed data. 48 A P P E N D I X This section is not specifically devoted to the techniques able to prove or disprove any given theory; it deals about some important physical observations and technical prescriptions, in order to optimize in the best way as possible the measurements that are common to many of the described theories. Particular emphasis is given to optical spectroscopic and photometric measurements. A - SPECTROSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF DENSITY AND PRESSURE OF A LUMINOUS PLASMOID It is very important to observe that the Standard OSAS system can allow quite easily the determination of the gas Density and Pressure of a Luminous Plasmoid. This important operation can furnish important data to some of the proposed theories (in particular theories 3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.1.6, 3.1.10, 3.1.11, 3.1.15). Assuming that the Equation of State of a Perfect Gas P = R D T (1) P : Pressure, D : Density, T : Temperature, R : Constant of Perfect Gases is valid in the case of LP physics and that the LP gas is of Thermal Nature and can be treated as a not-totally ionized gas (both excited and ionized), it is possible to calculate the effect produced by the gas Density D on a given spectral line. This effect is given by a, more or less, strong line-broadening mechanism, that can be represented by the formula: Β∆λc = 4 N σ 2 D ⋅ ( (R T) / ( µ3 π ) )1/2 (2) N : Avogadro Number, σ : Particle Cross-Section D : Density, R : Constant of Perfect Gases, T : Temperature, µ : Molecular Weight The value B∆λc is called Collision Broadening and, as it is possible to see from formula (2), it grows linearly with the Density of the gas. Assuming that σ ,T and µ can be measured in other ways, one can derive the gas Density and, using formula (1), the gas Pressure. In this way it is possible to verify if a Luminous Plasmoid consists or not of a high pressure incandescent gas. This kind of line-broadening is easily distinguishable from the other expected line-broadening mechanisms (Rotational, Stark, Zeeman, Gravitational) which have been treated in this work, for the simple fact that Collision Broadening, differently from the other mechanisms, determines a more or less strong increase of the Equivalent Width EW of the spectral line (the integrated area of the plotted line): ∞ EW = ∫0 ( 1 - ( Fλ / Fc) ) dλ (3) Fλ = photon-flux from the spectral line, Fc = photon-flux from the continuum For this reason it is not at all necessary to measure and study, as in the other 4 cases, the specific linemorphology (for which one needs necessarily high specral resolution). The measurement of the EW of the spectral line can indeed allow the determination of the Density D of the plasma-gas and, if the Temperature T is known, of the Pressure P. It is very important to say that the measurement of the EW of a spectral line does not request high spectral resolution but only medium resolution: this fulfillment can be sufficiently satisfied by the OSAS system in its standard configuration (λ /δλ = 3 x 103 Å). The procedure to be adopted in order to obtain the Density and, then, the Pressure of the excited-ionized gas that characterizes a Luminous Plasmoid could be the following one: 49 (1) The Temperature T is determined measuring the max-point of the Plank curve and its corresponding wavelength, obtained from the overall spectrum (3800-7600 Å): in this case only the continuum-part of the spectrum is considered. (2) The parameters σ and µ are determined by means of the Identification of all the lines in the spectrum (spectrochemistry) and after their Amplitude is accurately measured. (3) The Density D of the plasma-gas of the LP is determined measuring the EW of every spectral line. This operation requests for a calibration: it is necessary that the given observed line is compared with the laboratory lines produced by a gas of identical chemical composition and temperature but different density and for which a graph relating EW with D has been derived. Once the EWs of the observed line and of the experimental line are approximately equal, one can obtain the density D and, assuming that an equation of state of perfect gases can be assumed valid, one can obtain the Pressure P of the Luminous Plasmoid. This test is intended to verify two fundamental conditions that can be present in the excited-ionized gas that constitutes a Luminous Plasmoid: (1) The plasma is at High Pressure because the measured EW of the spectral lines is very high: this fact is consistent with a Short LP Relaxation-Time and with a more typical BL-like nature. (2) The plasma is at Low Pressure because the measured EW of the spectral lines is very low: this fact is consistent with a Long LP Relaxation-Time and with a more typical Hessdalen Phenomenon. In the case condition (1) is, unexpectedly, verified in the Hessdalen case where long LP durations are typically reported, this should be a confirmation that the plasma, in order to be supported during a long time, must be energized by some kind of external source, which could be possibly an UHF radiator. If this is the case, the EMS system could then be determinant in measuring the power, the frequency and the direction of the external source. Furtherly, the RS system, the IRS system and, secondarily, the VPS system, could allow a very clear identification of an external localized energizing source. The external energizing source could come from: (a) A Natural Source due to atmospheric electricity, localized or possibly omogeneously diffused and, in case, transitorily variable. (b) An Artificial Source due to a, possibly, flying energizer. References: 2,6,18,21,58,68. B - SEARCH FOR PHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR OPTICAL AND IR SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS The ideal software for spectroscopic analysis of data coming from the OSAS system, standard or not, should allow the determination of the following parameters of a Luminous Plasmoid: with Low-Medium Spectral Resolution R = λ / δλ = 102− 104 : (1) Spectral Line Identification procedure can be accomplished. (2) Temperature T: obtained from the measurement of the maximum of the Planck function fitting the overall spectrum in the range 3800-7600 Å (possibly expanded to 2000-12000 Å). (3) Density D and Pressure P: obtained from the Collision-Broadening effect derived from the measurement of the Equivalent Width EW of every line. (4) Amplitude A of every spectral line, for determination of gas chemical abundance and as an alternative means to determine the gas temperature. with High or Very High Spectral Resolution R = λ / δλ = 104 − 106 : (5) Intensity B of Magnetic Field : obtained from the morphological analysis of the Zeeman Line-Broadening effect. (6) Intensity E of Electric Field: obtained from the morphological analysis of the Stark Line-Broadening effect. (7) Rotational Velocity RV: obtained from the morphological analysis of the Rotational Line-Broadening effect. 50 (8) Gravitational Field G: obtained from the morphological analysis of the Gravitational Line-Broadening effect. (9) Outflow Velocity OV or Infall Velocity IV: obtained from the morphological analysis of, respectively, the "P-Cygni" effect (blue shift) and the Inverse "P-Cygni" effect (red shift), which consist both of a "composite spectral line" that is splitted into an absorption and into an emission component. All these physical parameters can be straightly known without the necessity to know the distance d of the LP target. First of all, it must be said that in the case of every spectrographic device, including the standard OSAS system, a Reference Spectrum should be simoultaneously obtained together with the Observed LP Spectrum. This operation can be fulfilled by connecting to the OSAS system (standard or not) a HeliumArgon or Neon Lamp: every time a LP spectrum is obtained, it is necessary to obtain, parallely, a spectrum of the Reference Lamp (of which one, previously, knows exactly the central wavelengths of every spectral line). In this circumstance one can know the exact wavelength range of the obtained spectrum and, consequently, the exact central wavelength of every specific spectral line of the observed LP spectrum. Secondly, it should be necessary to have a facility that is able to check, instant by instant, the F.W.H.M. (Full Width at Half Maximum) of every line of the Reference Spectrum, in order to set the focus of the spectrograph collimator (constituted of the OSAS focal lens) at its optimum value: this operation is of fundamental importance for the further measurements of Line-Broadening effects. The software for spectroscopic data processing should request and allow: (A) - The possibility of working on a video pictorial computer screen (possibly not less than 17"), in which it can be possible to do preliminary operations on the directly-acquired digital spectra that haven't been plotted yet on a graphic screen. (B) - Interactive facilities, in order to eliminate spurious spots or spikes that pollute spectral lines of interest which are present in the observed pictorial spectrum. (C) - Math facilities, able to: I - do average or sum operations on a digital spectrum which is composed of a given number of pixel-rows (6-12), II - do the same operations on more spectra obtained in the same wavelength range. The main application of these facilities is of increasing the S/N ratio of the digital spectrum. (D) - The possibility of working on a graphic computer screen, able to transform pictorial spectra into graphic spectra (plot Intensity vs. Pixel Position and then, plot Intensity vs. Wavelength). (E) - Numerical Filtering facilities, able to smooth highly noisy spectra that have been obtained with too low exposure times or from too weak sources. (F) - A Database in which all the lines of a Reference Spectrum are identified by their central wavelength, in the basic range 3800-7800 Å or in the expanded one 2000-12000 Å. (G) - A routine able to perform Wavelength - Pixel-Position (W-P) Calibration, using (F) in connection with an interpolating 4th order polynomial: the calibration coefficients obtained from the W-P calibration of the Reference Spectrum allow the further W-P calibration of the Observed LP Spectrum. (H) - A Database in which all the possible spectral lines of atmospheric gas excitation-ionization (due to Nitrogen and Oxygen, in particular) and in which all the possible spectral molecular bands caused by incandescent solid or gaseous materials, are wavelength-identified by means of previous laboratory experiments. This database should be then graphically plotted and overlapped on the W-P calibrated spectrum of the observed LP phenomenon: this operation can allow a very fast line-identification (see also (O)). (I) - Possibility of dividing every W-P calibrated spectrum (its intensity) by the time exposure by means of which it has been obtained, for every chosen separed spectral range, and, then, possibility of merging in only one graph all the spectral ranges: this "first normalization" operation is very important in order to obtain the overall Planck curve, in which the varying slope of the continuum intensity is shown. (L) - A routine able to fit the continuum underlying the W-P calibrated spectrum, using a 3rd order interpolating polynomial. (M) - Possibility of dividing every W-P calibrated spectrum by its fitted continuum, in order to obtain a spectrum that is normalized at Intensity = 1: this "second normalization" operation, the Spectrum Rectification, is essential to allow a realistic further determination of the Equivalent Width (EW) of the present lines. Moreover, it is useful to compare sequential spectra obtained in the same wavelength range at different times; an "overplot" facility, by means of which all the rectified spectra are plotted one over the other, could evidence the variations occurred in the present lines. 51 (N) - A routine able to fit every single line of the Rectified Spectrum by means of a Gauss or a Lorentz function for symmetric lines, in order to allow the measurement of the Line Equivalent Width EW, of the Line Central Wavelength λc, of the Line Wavelength Range ∆λ and of the Line Broadening Effect at FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum). Analogously it should be important to use also a routine able to measure with Integral Mode, the EW of spectral lines that are asymmetric and/or noisy. (O) - The possibility to overlap the central wavelength of the laboratory-identified lines on the WP calibrated spectrum (rectified or not) of the Luminous Phenomenon, in a graphical mode: i.e., in form of straight lines perpendicular to the given spectrum, together with the written central wavelengths. This operation, in addition to what said in procedure (H), is very important in order to allow the measurement of red or blue wavelength displacements of the lines of the observed LP spectrum. (P) - The general ability of the software to give the error (variance etc.) in all the kinds of measurements. (Q) - A Theoretical Routine able to simulate Stark, Zeeman, Rotational and Gravitational Line-Broadening effects: every simulated effect should be then graphically overlapped on the actual spectral line present in the W-P calibrated and rectified spectrum of the observed LP object. All these routines are commonly encountered in some dedicated Packages that are used in current astrophysical spectroscopic analysis, such as MIDAS, ELSPEC, IRAF (See References 15,34,43) or other less famous ones. These packages are generally runned on VAX or MicroVAX computers connected to a De Anza pictorial screen or on Windows-SVGA-Workstations. Many of the described routines can be performed also with dedicated softwares of laboratory physics or chemistry. Almost all these routines can be found or built-in using the Package MATLAB 4.2 (Price = $ 2600) in connection with its dedicated Toolboxes "Hi-Spec" (Price = 900 $), "Spline" (Price $ 600) and "Simulink" (Price = $ 3000) (See Ref. 41). In order to use MATLAB 4.2 and his Toolboxes, the following computerprescriptions are necessary: RAM = 4/16 MB, HD = 8/20 MB, minimum CPU-CF = 486 DX2-66MHz, optimum CPU-CF = Pentium-100 MHz, TV monitor ≥ 17"; the Windows 3.1 operative system is preferred. In addition to the processing of digital spectra coming from the OSAS system (standard or not), it is also very important that the negative films that are obtained from Normal Cameras (as, portable Reflex) supplied with a Grating, can be processed as well with the same procedure described above, after they are digitized by means of a professional Scanner device. References: 2,6,15,18,21,30,32,34,41,43,48II,58,,60,61,68. C - SEARCH FOR PHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR OPTICAL AND IR PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS The ideal software for photometric analysis of data coming both from the VPS and the IRS systems, should allow the determination of the following fundamental Apparent Parameters of a Luminous Target: (1) Angular Size α of one target. (2) Angular Separation θ of more targets. (3) Superficial Intensity B∆ν in a given Surface-Contour. (4) Superficial Flux F∆ν in a given Solid Angle Ω: F∆ν = ∫Ω B∆ν dω (4) ∆ν = Frequency Range From these parameters, once the Distance d of the target is known, using the telemetric function of the RS system or of the LIRS system, it is possible to obtain the following Intrinsic Parameters of the Luminous Target: (5) Linear Size S of one target: S = d tanα (5) (6) Linear Separation L of more targets: 52 L = d tanθ (6) (7) Intrinsic Superficial Intensity I ∆ν in a given Surface Contour: I∆ν = 4π d2 B∆ν (7) (8) Intrinsic Luminosity L∆ν : L∆ν = 4π d2 F∆ν (8) (9) Total Luminosity LT : ν2 LT = 4π d2 ∫ν1 F∆ν dν (9) Assuming that the target is a Luminous Plasmoid that emits light with a Thermal Blackbody process and that, for simplicity, it is spherical-shaped, it can be assumed that: LT = 4π (S/2)2 σ T4 (9b) σ = Stefan-Boltzmann Constant, S = Linear Size, T = Temperature From this consideration, it can be observed that, once S and LT are measured, it is possible to derive the effective Temperature T of the plasmoid (alternative method in comparison with the spectroscopical one). (10) Color Index δL : δL = L∆ν1 / L ∆ν2 (10) (11) Intensity Gradient d (I∆ν) / dr , with r in the range 0 ≤ r ≤ (S/2) (12) Color Gradient d (δL) / dr , with r in the range 0 ≤ r ≤ (S/2). NOTE 1: As it is possible to observe, parameters (10) and (12) can be determined without any need to know the target's Distance d. NOTE 2: The Intrinsic Parameters of the Luminous Target can be obtained also relating the measurements obtained with the VPS system to the use of the RLS system. In order to be able to do all these measurements, it is necessary that the software for photometric data processing can be supplied with the following possibilities: (A) - A computer screen with high resolution (SVGA) should be used, possibly not less than 17". (B) - Math operations must allow the subtraction of the light sky-background from the targeted image and most operations must be done interactively on a pictorial screen. (C) - Graphic overplots on the pictorial screen are necessary; in particular a fitting function, such as a Point Spread Function (PSF) should be able to represent the 3D graph obtained by Superficial Intensity (z axis) vs. Angular size (x,y axes): the PSF can then furnish an accurate contour-picture of the target and an accurate display of the image Histogram. (D) - Options for False Color displays are necessary, in order to visualize surface contours of different Superficial Intensity. Alternatively, a very wide greyscale could be used. (E) - Possibility to interpolate and plot points along selected lines. (F) - Possibility to do Filter Design, Filtering Operations and Image Restoration: this is very important in the case of images obtained with low S/N ratio and in the case of images that can be defocused because of transient imperfections of the optics or because of other reasons. (G) - Possibility to do Image Enhancement: in particular, density slicing of grayscale images, contrast enhancement and adjust or stretch image intensity. (H) - Possibility to do Morphological Analysis, in order to be able to search for a possible geometric-solid object underlying a given luminous target which doesn't present a sharp contour. (I) - All the executed calculations on images must be accompanied by accurate evaluations of the error of measurement. 53 (L) - Possibility to analyze every single VPS (or IRS) photogram with a very high time resolution and to apply Fourier Parametric Time Series Analysis, in order to search for Fast Variability (0.001-10 sec) of the following parameters: dS / dt, dI∆ν / dt, dL∆ν / dt, dLT / dt, d(δL) / dt, dI∆ν / (dr ⋅ dt), d(δL) / (dr ⋅ dt) The construction of Periodograms must be then rendered possible, also in case of sequential image frames that are very noisy or apparently at the same light level. All these routines are commonly encountered in some packages that are used in astrophysical CCD image processing, such as INVENTORY and DHAOPHOT (facilities of MIDAS), ROMAPHOT (References 43,51) and others. Many of these routines can be performed also by means of dedicated similar softwares of laboratory physics or photography. A most suitable and flexible system for photometric analysis which can be built-in on the specific problem which is investigated in this context, is the (already cited) Package MATLAB 4.2, in connection with its Toolboxes "Image Processing" (Price: $ 1400), "Signal Processing" (Price: $ 600, this one is also very useful for the processing of data coming from the EMS and MS systems) and "Simulink" (Price: $ 3000). The computer prescriptions are about the same as the ones cited in the previously discussed spectroscopic part. In addition to the processing of CCD images coming from the VPS and IRS systems, it is also very important that the negative films that are obtained from Normal Cameras (as, portable Reflex) can be be processed as well with the same procedure described above, after they are digitized by means of a professional Scanner device. References: 1,2,4,6,18,28,30,32,34,41,43,51,66. D - CONNECTION OF A TELESCOPE TO THE VPS AND OSAS SYSTEMS The Zoom Lens facility of the VPS system could not be sufficient to obtain enough informations on radartracked targets which are very far (say, more than 10 Km): for this reason it could be important to have the possibility to replace the Zoom Lens with a Small Reflecting Telescope whose diameter of aperture should be DT ≥ 200 mm (compared with the diameter of aperture of a typical Zoom Lens: 50 ≤ Dzl ≤ 100 mm). It is intended here that the Zoom Lens and the Telescope should have the possibility to be quickly interchangeable. For analogous reasons it could be important to connect this kind of small telescope to the OSAS system too. The advantages coming from the possible use of this technical facility are fundamentally the following ones: (1) The Spatial Resolution SR of an extended target: SR ∝ λ / DT (1) λ = Wavelength is increased, being possible to obtain a smaller SR number than in the case of the Zoom Lens case. Consequently some photometric parameters, as S, I∆ν and dI∆ν / dr, can be more accurately measured. (2) The Light Accepting Power LAP, corresponding to the quantity of received photons: LAP ∝ DT2 / FT2 (2) FT = Telescope Focal Length is highly increased. Consequently all the photometric parameters and all the spectroscopic parameters can be measured with a higher value of the Signal to Noise ratio (S/N). (3) The Exposure Time ET, used to obtain photometric and spectroscopic frames: 54 ET ∝ ( (S/N)2 ⋅ B ⋅ FT2 ) / ( ∆λ ⋅ L2 ⋅ DT2) (3) S/N = Signal to Noise Ratio, B = Sky-Background Luminosity, ∆λ = Spectral Range ( ∆λ ∼ 800 Å for photometry, ∆λ ∼ 2 Å for spectroscopy), L = Target Apparent Luminosity is highly decreased. Consequently it can be possible to reach a good S/N ratio with shorter exposure times than in the case of the Zoom Lens. Moreover, in this way it could be possible to obtain more than one frame of a single object in order to study the light time-variability of the phenomenon. (4) Having the possibility of extending the photometric and spectroscopic analysis also to targets that are very far from the observer, one can, on one side, improve the analysis of every single target and, on another side, expand consistently the number of luminous phenomena that can be subject to measurement operations (this is also important for the statistical side of the research). (5) The Telescope is less affected by optical aberrations than a typical Zoom Lens: in particular, chromatic aberration is totally missing; possible spherical aberration can be eliminated, using parabolic mirror configurations. Moreover the use of "adaptive optics" technology could allow a real-time control of the telescope focus, which is normally subject to minimal variations (but important for the quality of the image) because of distorsions of the telescope-mirror caused by effects of ambient-temperature. Such kind of small telescopes can be widely chosen between the many types of CELESTRON and MEADE telescopes (USA), which have diameters of aperture ranging in the interval 200 ≤ DT ≤ 400 mm and that are used both for amateur and professional astronomy. References: 2,7,30,32,42,48XII,60,61. E - CONNECTION OF A MULTI-CHANNEL SPECTRUM ANALYZER (MCSA) TO THE EMS SYSTEM The MCSA is a very precious device to be connected to the antennas of the EMS system, as it is able to analyze Continuous Wave Signals (CWS) and Pulsed Signals (PS) simoultaneously in 105 up-to 107 frequency-channels (according to the chosen type of MCSA) in the broad frequency range inside which the EMS system is working. In particular, it is possible to obtain the following informations: (1) To know exactly at which peak-frequency the phenomenon is more powerful or more power-variable: this performance can be reached with a frequency resolution of 30 Hz up-to 1 Hz, in order to facilitate the detection of narrow-band signals. (2) To do a better confrontation with the specific peak-frequencies which are predicted by some of the proposed theoretical-computational models. (3) To be able to obtain Molecular Spectra in the radio-frequency range: this is an important information that can be useful to many of the proposed theories. (4) To obtain detailed informations on radio signals that are characterized by a frequency shift or split during the time of observation. (5) To detect left-hand and right-hand circular signal polarization. (6) To be able to distinguish the detected signal coming from the phenomenon, from interference signals (broadcasting, satellites etc.): this can be done by consulting files of known radio-frequency interference. (7) To verify, in the same way as the SETI research, if the radio-frequency signals can have a logicalstructure or are intelligently intentional. Such kind of MCSA instrument is already available and is actually operating in the NASA SETI research (8 x 106 frequency-channels, Price: $ 900000), in connection with parabolic radiotelescopes. An analogous MCSA instrument is also operating in Italy (Stazione Radioastronomica di Medicina (BO) - Technical Responsible: Dr. Stelio Montebugnoli) in a very simplified and portable form (105 frequencychannels, Price $ 100000), used both for astrophysical research and for SETI research. 55 References: 2,16,25,48VIII,56. 5.0 REFERENCES (1) Aaakeberg S., Giertsen T., Kjaernsrod R., Pettersen K., Solem L. (Supervisors: Strand E.P., Nygård K.), Videfolgesystem, Ostfold College of Engineering (OIH) - Technical Report E-94-05, 1994. (2) Agnalt S., Filtvedt H., Farah Y., Keyse M., Hanski K.I., Dolson A.S. (Supervisors: Nygård K., Strand E.P., Hauge B.G., Nordby R.), Automatic Measurement Station, OIH - Technical Report E-94-04, 1994. (3) Bach E.W., UFOs from the Volcanoes, Hermitage Publishers, 1993. (4) Bloomfield P., Fourier Analysis of Time Series: an Introduction, Wiley & Sons, 1975. (5) Bohm D., Wholeness and Implicate Orders, Routledge & Kegan, 1980. (6) Born M., Atomic Physics, Blackie & Son, 1969. (7) CELESTRON International, USA. (8) Condon E., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (Collection of Articles by Various Scientists), Bantam Books, 1969. (9) Constable T., The Cosmic Pulse of Life, Spearman, 1976. (10) Corliss W., Handbook of Unusual Natural Phenomena, Sourcebook Project, 1977. (11) Davies P., The New Physics (Collection of Articles by Various Scientists), Cambridge University Press, 1989. (12) Davies P., Wormholes and Time Machines, Sky & Telescope, Jan. 1992, p.20. (13) Davies P., Matter-Antimatter, Sky & Telescope, Nov. 1992, p.257. (14) Deveraux P., Earth Lights Revelation, Blanford Press, 1989. (15) ELSPEC: Software Package, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Italy. (16) Fjerbaek A., Wollenbaek F., Dahl L., Aube S.H. (Supervisors: Strand E.P., Hauge B., Nordby R., Nygård K.), Radiopeilesystem, OIH - Technical Report E-94-01, 1994. (17) Frank J., King A.R., Raine D.S., Accretion Power in Astrophysics, Cambridge University Press, 1985. (18) Fredrick L.W., Baker R.H., Astronomy, Van Nostrand C., 1976. (19) Freitas R.A. Jr., If they are here, where are they? Observational and Search Considerations, ICARUS, 55, p.337, 1983. (20) Giampapa M.S., The Solar-Stellar Connection, Sky & Telescope, Aug. 1987, p.142. (21) Gray D., The Observation and Analysis of Stellar Photospheres, Wiley & Sons, 1976. (22) Griffiths D.J., Electrostatic Levitation of a Dipole, Am.J.Phys., Vol.54, No.8, p.744, 1986. (23) Haines R.F., Observing UFOs, Nelson-Hall, 1980. (24) Haines R.F., Project Delta: a Study of Multiple UFOs, LDA Press, 1994. 56 (25) Hauge B.G., The EM Posig-Equipment, OIH Preliminary Report, 1994. (26) Havik L., UFO Fenomenet, Vision Forlag, 1987. (27) Hawking S.W., A Brief History of Time, Bantam Books, 1988. (28) Henden A.A., Kaitchuck R.H., Astronomical Photometry, Van Nostrand R.C., 1982. (29) Hendry A., The UFO Handbook, Sphere, 1980. (30) Hiltner W.A., Astronomical Techniques (Vol.2 of "Stars and Stellar Systems"), University of Chicago Press, 1962. (31) Hyneck J.A., The UFO Experience, Regnery Press, 1972. (32) Kitchin C.R., Astrophysical Techniques, A.Hilger LTD, 1984. (33) Kraus J.D., Radio Astronomy, Mc Graw Hill B.C., 1966. (34) IRAF: Software Package, Kitt Peak National Observatory, USA. (35) Jahn R.G., Dunne B.J., On the Quantum Mechanics of Consciousness, with application to Anomalous Phenomena, Foundations of Physics, Vol.16, 8, 1986. (36) Jones E.M., A Manned Interstellar Vessel using Microwave Propulsion: a Dysonship, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol.38, p.270, 1985. (37) Laszlo E., Aux racines de l'univers (Introduction to Sub-Quantum Dynamics), Librairie Artheme Foyard, 1992. (38) Luminet J.P., Les Trous Noirs, Belfond, 1987. (39) Malanga C., UFO e Realtà Fisica, Notiziario UFO (C.U.N.), n.112-113, 1990. (40) Mateo M., Searching for Dark Matter, Sky & Telescope, Jan. 1994, p.20. (41) MATLAB 4.2: Software Package, "The Math Works Inc.", USA. (42) MEADE Instruments Corporation, USA. (43) MIDAS: Software Package, European Southern Observatory, Garching-Germany. (44) Morris M.S., Thorne K.S., Yurtsever U., Wormholes, Time Machines and the Weak Energy Condition, The American Physical Society, Vol.61, n.13, p.1446, 1988. (45) Page T. & Sagan C., UFOs: a Scientific Debate (Collection of Articles by Various Scientists) , Cornell University Press, 1972. (46) Papagiannis M.D., Are we alone, or could They be in the Asteroid Belt?, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 19, p.277, 1978. (47) Peat F.D., Syncronicity: the bridge between matter and mind, Bantam Books, 1987. 57 ********************************************************************************************************** (48) Proceedings of the FIRST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE UNIDENTIFIED ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT PHENOMENA IN HESSDALEN, Hessdalen, Norway, March 23-27, 1994. Scientists Presentations: I - Strand E. (Engineer), Project Hessdalen 1984/1985, II - Strand E. (Engineer), A New Project Hessdalen, III - Smirnov B. (Physicist), Studies of Ball Lightning, IV - Manykin E. (Physicist), Fireball dynamics in microwave field at atmosphere, V - Protasevich E.T. (Physicist), Long-living plasma formations in the atmosphere and their reproduction in the laboratory conditions, VI - Arnhoff G.H. (Physicist), Is there yet an explanation of Ball Lightning?, VII - Fryberger D. (Physicist), A model for Ball Lightning, VIII - Hauge B.G. (Engineer), EM-Recordings, IX - You-Suo Zuo (Physicist), Some physical considerations for the unusual atmospheric lights in Norway, X - Deveraux P. (Expert), Earth Lights: history and latest research, XI - Grigor'ev A.I. (Physicist), The Hessdalen Phenomena, St.Elmo's Fire and Ball Lightning as forms of Atmospheric Electricity, XII - Teodorani M. (Astronomer), A research plan for the acquisition and the analysis of UFO data, XIII - Evans H. (Historian), How unique is Hessdalen, XIV - Bach E. (Geologist), Phylippine UFOs (ST.Elmos) of the Volcanoes, * G r o u p W o r k ********************************************************************************************************** (49) Puthoff H.E., Gravity as a zero-point fluctuation force, Physical Review A, Vol.39, n.5, 1989. (50) Rybicki G.B. & Lightman A.P., Radiative Processes in Astrophysics, Wiley & Sons, 1979. (51) ROMAPHOT: Software Package, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy. (52) Rossi B., Cosmic Rays, Mc Graw Hill, 1964. (53) Rucker R., The Fourth Dimension: a guided tour of the higher universes, Houghton Mifflin C., 1984. (54) Rutledge H.D., Project Identification: The First Scientific Study of UFO Phenomena, Prentice Hall, 1981. (55) Second EURO-SSE Conference, Glasgow 24-26 Aug. 1994. (56) SETI Program Office, Program Plan for the Search of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (including a description of the M.C.S.A. spectrum-analyzer and of its applicability to many branches of Radio-Wave science), NASA Technical Report, 1987. (57) Smirnov B.M., Long-lived glowing phenomena in the atmosphere, Physics-Uspekhj, 37(5), 1994. (58) Sobelman I.I., Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines, Springer & Verlag, 1980. (59) Strand E., Project Hessdalen 1984 - Final Technical Report: Part One, Technical Report, 1984. (60) Teodorani M., PRIVATE COMMUNICATIONS to the researchers of Project Hessdalen (regarding in particular the importance of using high-dispersion spectroscopy and high time-resolution photometry for the study of the Hessdalen Phenomenon; these communications include also some concepts discussed in point (34)-XII), April-October 1994. (61) Teodorani M., Development and Use of Astronomy-like Devices for UFO Monitoring: A Research Project for the Study of UFO Physics, Andromeda - "Inediti" (Monographs in Physics), n.76, Società Editrice Andromeda, 1994. 58 (62) Vallee J., Dimensions, Souvenir Press, 1988. (63) Vallee J., Confrontations, Ballantine Books, 1990. (64) Von Ludwiger I., Interdisciplinary UFO Research, MUFON-CES Report n.11, 1993. (65) Vonsovsky S.V., Magnetism of Elementary Particles, Mir Publishers-Moskow, 1975. (66) Warner B., High Speed Astronomical Photometry, Cambridge University Press, 1988. (67) "WHAT PHYSICS FOR THE NEXT CENTURY?" : Proceedings of the International Conference at Ischia, Italy 29 May - 1 June 1991, Andromeda - "Inediti" (Monographs in Physics), n.59, Società Editrice Andromeda, 1991. (68) White L., Introduction to Atomic Spectra, Mc Graw Hill, 1980. (69) "ENQUETE 81/01: ANALYSE D'UNE TRACE", Note Tecnique n° 16, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNRS) - Groupe d'Etude des Phenomenes Aerospatiaux Non-Identifié (GEPAN), ToulouseFrance, 1983. 59 Experimental Methods for studying the Hessdalen-Phenomenon in the light of the Proposed Theories: a Comparative Overview Massimo Teodorani, Ph.D. OSSERVATORIO ASTRONOMICO DI CAPODIMONTE Via Moiariello 16 - I 80131 Napoli E-Mail: TEODORANI@astrna.na.astro.it Erling P. Strand, M.Sc.E.E. Østfold College - Department for Informatics and Automation, P.O. Box 1192, Valaskjold, N-1702 - Norway. E-Mail: Erling.P.Strand@hiof.no ADDITIONAL APPENDIX PROCEDURAL OUTLINES 60 T H E O R I E S Proposed to Explain the Hessdalen-Phenomenon I - PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC NATURE (A) Intrinsic Causes • Ionized Fractal Gas Concentration • Ionized Gas Concentration triggered by a Self-Restricted Rotating Electrical Field • Ionized Vorton-driven Gas Concentration • Ionized Gas Concentration triggered by a Fast-Pulsating E.M. Field (B) Extrinsic Causes • Atmospheric Electricity • Tectonic Stresses or Seismic Phenomena • Gamma Rays from Radioactivity • Cosmic Rays • Solar Activity • Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles • Cosmic Mini-Black Holes • Cosmic Anti-Matter • Cosmic Baryonic Matter • Meteors • Artificial Electromagnetic Causes • Quantum Fluctuations of the Vacuum State II - RADIATING MATTER OF PARTICULAR STATE • Anti-Plasma living in our atmosphere • Pre-Biotic Radiating Matter 61 STANDARD INSTRUMENTATION * Electromagnetic System: EMS * Radar System: RS * Tracking System: TS * Infrared System: IRS * Optical Spectrum Analyzer System: OSAS * Seismograph System: SS * Magnetometer System: MS * Video and Photo System: VPS * Laser Imaging Radar System: LIRS * Weather Station System: WSS * Reference Light System: RLS * Air Control System: ACS EXTRA INSTRUMENTATION - Main Instruments * High-Dispersion Devices: HDD * Infrared Spectrum Analyzer: IRSAS * Ultraviolet Imager: UI * Multi-Channel Spectrum Analyzer: MCSA * Radar Imaging Capability: RIC * Radar Telemetric Capability: RTC * Small Telescope Unit: STU * Schmidt Small Telescope: SST * Fast Photon-Counting Photometer: FPCP * All-Sky Photometer: ASP * Photo-Polarimeter: PP * Electrostatic Detector: ED * Gamma-Ray Detector: GRD * Neutron Detector: ND * Acoustic Detector: AD * Satellite-based Magnetometer: SM * Missile-based Atmospheric Probe: MAP * Balloon-based Air Sampling: BAS * Magnetic-Field Inducing Device: MFID * Electrostatic-Charge Inducing Device: ECID * Ground-based Perforated Metal Plate: GPMP 62 Ionized Fractal Gas Concentration 1.Luminous Plasmoid (LP) triggered by External Ionizing Radiation. 2.LP Properties: Solid-like in the nucleus and Gaseous in the surrounding. 3.Gas heated by the nucleus via Thermal Waves. 4.Correlation LP Diameter - LP Lifetime predicted. 5.Long Relaxation-Times predicted. Measurements • TEST ON SUBSTANCE : Spectroscopic and Lidar Analysis Lidar Analysis via LIRS Thermal Radiation ? Tracking via RS TS Telescope Spectroscopy T: from Planck Curve via STU via OSAS P: from Collision Line-Broadening • TEST ON SUBSTANCE : Air Sampling Air Sapling Laboratory via BAS Induced EM EM Ionization LP Lifetime? Ionization Stop 63 • TEST ON SUBSTANCE : Artificial LP Splitting Perforated Metal Plate via GPMP LP forced LP Merge Induced Magnetic Field inside 2 Holes Splitting? of 2 LPs? Via MFID Telescope via STU All the Scene Video-Filmed via VPS Tracking via RS-TS • TEST ON LP TEMPERATURE INTERNAL DISTRIBUTION Infrared Analysis Radial Temperature Is a Hot Nucleus located via IRS Gradient? in the center of LP? Tracking via RS-TS • TEST ON CORRELATION LP DIAMETER - LP LIFETIME : Radar Telemetry LP via RS and RTC Distance LP Obtained Diameter - Linear Size Many LP Lifetime Video of LP LP Angular Samples Correlation? via VPS Size LP Lifetime? Tracking via RS--TS Telescope via STU 64 • TEST ON MAGNETIC EFFECTS ON FREE ELECTRONS : LP Attraction Radiofrequency Analysis Non-Thermal Radiation? using via EMS Induced Magnetic Field via MFID Photometric Analysis Luminosity Variation? via VPS Tracking via RS-TS Telescope via STU 65 Ionized Gas Concentration Triggered by a Self-Restricted Rotating Electrical Field 1. LP: Electrostatic Concentration of Ionized Vapour with a Spatially Localized Charge. 2. Self-Restricted Rotating Electrical Field whose Intensity is Gradually Decreasing with distance from the Nucleus: described by Helmotz Equation. Measurements • TEST ON ELECTRIC CHARGE DISTRIBUTION : Telescope via STU Spectroscopic Analysis High-Excitation Lines = High Stark Line-Broadening? via HDD Low-Excitation Lines = Low Stark Line-Broadening? Electric Field stronger in the Infrared Analysis Radial Thermal Gradient Temperature - LP nucleus via IRS inside LP? Electric Intensity Correlation? Tracking via RS-TS TEST ON PLASMA REGIME OF MOTION : Spectroscopic Analysis High-Excitation Lines = High Rotational Line-Broadening? via HDD Low-Excitation Lines = Low Rotational Line-Broadening? Telescope Tracking via RS-TS Electric Field able to put the Plasma via STU into Differential Rotation 66 Ionized Vorton-driven Gas Concentration 1.The core of a LP is a coherent plasma composed of a large number of Vortons: Rotating Electromagnetic Fields, as flywheels, in a “dyality” simmetry. 2.Formation of Vortons from the mediation of “orphaned” magnetic fields associated with Lightning Discharge Currents. 3.The core of LP assures Spatial Coherence and long Lifetime. 4.PREDICTIONS : Blackbody Emission, Temperature and Color Decay, Polarization, Fast LP Motion, Electrostatic Charges Deposition, Neutron Deposition, Gamma-ray Emission, Angular Momentum Decay, Low-Frequency Oscillating Electric and Magnetic Fields, Strong Radar Signature. Measurements • TEST ON LP EMISSION MECHANISM: Thermal Nature and Time-Decay Infrared Analysis via IRS Lidar Analysis via LIRS Tracking Spectroscopic Analysis Thermal radiation? via RS-TS via OSAS T: from Planck Curve Time Telescope P: From Collision Line-Broadening Decay ? via STU Photometric Analysis Color Temperature? via VPS 67 • TEST ON EM RADIATION: Oscillating Electric and Magnetic Fields, Polarization, Radar Signature Radiofrequency Analysis via EMS Multi-Channel Analysis EM Polarization? via MCSA Time-Variation? EM Oscillation? Magnetometric Magnetic Oscillation? Analysis via MS Non-Thermal Component? Radar Tracking Magnitude of via RS Radar Image? TESTS ON PARTICLES: Electrostatic, Gamma, Neutrons Electrostatic Counting Gamma-Ray Counting Neutron Counting via ED via GRD via ND How Many Events in the Time Unit? C o r r e l a t i o n ? 68 • TEST ON VORTON AND LP ANGULAR MOMENTUM DECAY Tracking via RS-TS Telescope via STS Spectroscopic Sequential Time-Decay of Correlation with Analysis Spectroscopic Rotational Color ,Temperature via HDD Frames Line-Broadening? Decays? Vorton Angular Momentum Decay = Plasma Angular Momentum Decay? 69 Ionized Gas Concentration Triggered by a Fast-Pulsating EM Field Long LP Relaxation-Time explained by an External Energizing Mechanism occurring at Fast Impulses - not in a continuous way. Measurements • TEST ON FAST OPTICAL AND RADIO TIME-VARIATION Time Series Fourier Analysis of CCD Frames - via VPS Photometric Analysis Fast Photon-Counting via FPCP Telescope via STU Pulsation Frequency? Tracking via RS-TS Time Series Fourier Analysis of Sequential Spectra Spectroscopic Analysis: Sequential Spectroscopic measurement of Line’s E.W. CCD Frames via OSAS Radiofrequency Analysis Multi-Channel via EMS Analysis via MCSA 70 Atmospheric Electricity 1.Weather Electricity, particularly during Storms and when Air is Highly Convective, causes LP of Ball Lightning-kind. 2.Atmospheric Convection, Geophysical Magnetic Field and Earth Rotation are all-together a “Dynamo Mechanism”: production of Electrostatic Charges in great quantity (Hypothesis). 3.Sonic Bangs in the Air cause Transient Increase of Air-Convectivity, Compression of Geophysical Magnetic Field and Transient Rise of Electrostatic Charges via air-friction (Hypothesis). Measurements • TEST ON CORRELATION BETWEEN AIR-CONVECTIVITY AND LP COUNTINGS Atmospheric Parameters Measurement via WSS Value of Air-Convectivity? Photometric Monitor via VPS Optical LP Frequency? Correlation? Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS Radiofrequency Monitor via EMS Radio LP Frequency? 71 • TEST ON CORRELATION BETWEEN “DYNAMO MECHANISM” AND LP COUNTING Simoultaneous Artificial Stimulations: CORRELATION between : 1. Magnetic Field Intensity 1. Strong Variable Magnetic Field via MFID 2. Explosion Intensity 2. Strong F.A.E. Explosion 3. LP Frequency ? Photometric Monitor via VPS Telescope via STU LP Frequency? Tracking via RS-TS Radiofrequency Monitor via EMS • TEST ON CORRELATION BETWEEN ACOUSTIC WAVES AND LP COUNTINGS Acoustic Monitor Acoustic-Event Frequency? via AD Photometric Monitor Optical LP Frequency? CORRELATION? via VPS Telescope via STU Tracking via RS--TS Radiofrequency Monitor Radio LP Frequency? via EMS 72 Tectonic Stresses or Seismic Phenomena 1. Rocks subject fo Flexures are able to produce both Charged Particles (Piezo-Electric Effect) and Electromagnetic Waves: from the Interaction Wave-Particle a LP can arise. 2. The formation of Charged Particles is favoured by conditions of High Humidity. 3. Theoretical Predictions: the Luminous Plasma is rotating in a Vortex, a “landed” LP can leave Spiral Traces on the ground. Measurements * TEST ON SIMOULTANEITY OF ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES AND EM WAVES: Detection Electrostatic Measurements via ED CORRELATION between : Electromagnetic Multi-Channel 1. Number of Electrostatic Events Measurements Analysis 2. Maxima of Electromagnetic Emission via EMS via MCSA 3. LP Frequency ? Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS Optical Monitor LP Frequency? via VPS 73 • TEST ON SIMOULTANEITY OF ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES AND EM WAVES: Laboratory Simulation Electrostatic Induction 1. How Many Induced Electrostatic via ECID Charges (Intensity, Duration); Instrumental Set-Up 2. Which Power, Frequency and settled very far from Duration of EM Transmission; Rocks: Boat in the Sea Electromagnetic are Necessary for the Production Transmission of “Artificial” LPs ? via EMS Optical Monitor 1. “Artificial” LP occur? via VPS 2. LP Frequency? Tracking via RS-TS Telescope via STU • TEST ON CORRELATION BETWEEN SEISMIC SHOCKS AND LP COUNTINGS Seismic Measurements Seismic Shocks? via SS Radiofrequency Monitor Radio LP Frequency? CORRELATION? via EMS Optical Monitor Optical LP Frequency? via VPS Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS 74 • TEST ON PREDICTED LP VORTEX MOTION Spectroscopy Rotational Line-Broadening ? via HDD Telescope via STU Tracking Vortex Motion Confirmed via RS-TS • TEST ON THERMODINAMIC PARAMETERS Collision Line-Broadening? P From Line E.W. Measurement CONFRONTATION with Spectroscopy Equation of State of Flux Variables via OSAS Perfect Gases: Assumed P,T,D predicted by Fluidodynamics Thermal Emission? T From Planck Curve Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS • SEARCH FOR SPIRAL MARKS LP Spiral Trace Photograph Digitization Photographed VORTEX Laboratory Spiral Trace Photograph Digitization FIT ? M o d e l Photographed Valid Theoretical Spiral Trace Digital Theoretical Image Computer-Simulated 75 Gamma Rays from Radioactivity 1. Gamma Rays from Radioactive Underground Substance can be a Primary Cause of Atmospheric Ionization: possible rise of LP. 2. Radioactive Substances can be Natural or Man-made. Measurements • TEST ON RADIOACTIVITY: Natural, Man-made Fixed Ground-Station Radioactivity Analysis via GRD Mobile Station on Balloon Radioactive or Helicopter Intensity? Search for Man-Made Radioactive Remnants Photometric Monitor LP Frequency? CORRELATION ? via VPS Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS 76 Cosmic Rays 1. Cosmic Particles are a Primary Cause of Atmospheric Ionization: LP Phenomena can be triggered. 2. Cosmic Particles follow “magnetic rails”. 3.If the occurrence of LP Phenomena is particularly concentrated in a given area of Earth, this could depend (Hypothesis) on the possibility that the Geophysical Magnetic Lines present holes or deformations just over that area. Measurements • TEST ON CORRELATION BETWEEN GEOPHYSICAL MAGNETIC DEFORMATIONS AND LP COUNTINGS Magnetometric Analysis Magnetic Intensity? Geophysical Magnetic of Geophysical Magnetic Magnetic Topography? Deformations? Field, via SM : From Space Optical Monitor via VPS LP Frequency? CORRELATION Between: 1. LP Frequency in the Area 2. Localized Magnetic Deformations Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS ? Radiofrequency Monitor via EMS Magnetometric Monitor of Geophysical Magnetic Magnetic Intensity? Field, via MS: Locally 77 Solar Activity 1. High Concentration of Solar Particles, enhanced during Maxima of Solar Activity, produces weak nuclear reactions in the stratosphere and consequent air-heating up-to Plasma conditions. 2. Atmospheric “Lens Effect”: corpuscolar radiation is focused and the formation of LP Phenomena is favoured. 3. Small Random Displacements and deformations of Atmospheric Layers cause Translation of the Focus Position: observers have the Illusion of Fast Intrinsic Movement of the LP. Measurements • TEST ON LP FOCUSING Computer Simulation FIT? of Focal Distances I N P U T S : Meteo Measurements of Air Parameters: T, P, D, Th, V, C 1. Solar Particle Concentration FIT? via Balloon-based Weather Station and WSS 2. Thickness of Atmospheric Layers 3. Velocities of Atmospheric Layers: Solar Physics Measurement Translational and Ascensional of Particle Concentration via Solar Observatory Telescope via STU Photometric Monitor of LP LP Observed? via VPS LP Linear Height? Radar Tracking of LP, via RS LP Distance? LP Angular Height? 78 • TEST ON CORRELATION BETWEEN SOLAR ACTIVITY AND LP COUNTING Solar Physics Measurements Optical: Coronal Prominences? via Solar Optical-Radio Observatory Photospheric Flares? Cromospheric Bursts? Radio: Radio Bursts? Radiofrequency Measurements Multi-Channel Analysis Radio Bursts? via EMS via MCSA High Radio LP Frequency? Magnetometric Measurements Magnetic Storms? via MS CORRELATION ? High Optical LP Frequency? Photometric Monitor via VPS Many Cosmic-Ray Spikes on CCD Frames? Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS 79 Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles 1. Cosmic Magnetic Monopoles: possible component of Cosmic Rays. 2. Very efficient centrally-located Confining Mechanism of Atmospheric Ionized Plasma: an LP can rise. 3. LP in Magnetostatic Equilibrium: Balance given by Central Magnetic Force and by Temperature-Pressure Regime of surrounding Ionized Plasma. 4. LP possibly formed of a Cluster of Magnetic Monopoles. 5. Long LP Relaxation-Time allowed. Measurements • TEST ON FUNDAMENTAL CORRELATIONS Magnetometric Measurements Small-Duration Magnetic Spikes? via MS Non-Thermal Radiation Component? Radiofrequency Measurements via EMS High Radio LP Frequency? C Radioactivity Measurements Gamma-Ray Events: O via GRD Many Events? High Power? R Localization? R E Spectroscopic Measurements Zeeman Line-Broadening? L via HDD A T Telescope via STU Attractive or Repulsive E Interaction of 2 or more LPs? ? Photometric Monitor via VPS Tracking via RS-TS High Optical LP Frequency? 80 Cosmic Mini-Black Holes 1. Mini-Black Holes possibly Spread all over the Universe: also inside our Solar System (Hypothesis). 2. Mini (or Micro) Black Hole Lifetime possibly Increased because of Accretion from Interstellar Gas or Dark Matter (Hypothesis). 3.Transportation Vehicles: Cosmic Rays (Micro-B.H.) or Meteors (Mini B.H.) (Hypothesis). 4.Mini Black Hole inside Our Atmosphere: Atmospheric Gas Accretion and conseguent formation of a Ball-like or Disk-like LP. 5.Mini-Black Hole-driven LP: Structure in Hydro-Gravitostatic Equilibrium given by Central Gravitational Force and by Temperature and Pressure of Accreted Atmospheric Gas. Measurements • TEST ON PREDICTED SPECTROSCOPIC FEATURES Gravitational Line-Broadening? Spectroscopic Analysis Rotational Line-Broadening? via HDD Inverse “P-Cygni” Line-Effect? Telescope via STU Zeeman Line-Broadening? Tracking via RS-TS F I T ? Computer Simulation of Weighed Average of Spectral Line Morphology: Composite Effects 1. Gravitational Line Broadening 2. Rotational Line-Broadening 3. Inverse “P Cygni” Effect 4. Zeeman Line-Broadening 81 • LIDAR TESTS: Relativistic Effects, Spectroscopic Analysis Lidar Beam pointed near LP via LIRS Beam Approaches LP at Minimum Distance Beam Refracted ? : Beam Absorbed ? : Photographic Test Spectroscopic Test Beam Deflected ? : Forced Atomic Recombination Relativistic Test of LP Plasma Photometric Analysis Telescope via VPS via STU Tracking via RS-TS CCD Photography of : Spectroscopic Analysis via OSAS Luminous Plasmoid PLUS Lidar Beam Measurement of Lidar Beam Deflection Measurement of Black Hole Gravitational Central Force 82 • TEST ON LP PHYSICAL PARAMETERS VARIATIONS Does Atmosphere influence LP? Atmospheric Parameters High Air-Density High Air-Accretion Measurement via: * Balloon-based Weather Station * WSS Does LP influence Atmosphere? * High-Temperature LP increases Air-Convectivity * High Accretion-Rate causes Air-Vortex Motion Luminosity and Color Time-Variations? Photometric Monitor via VPS Relaxation-Time Variation? Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS CORRELATION ? Spectroscopic Monitor Temperature and Pressure Variations? via OSAS Radar Monitor Altitude and Velocity Variations? via RS Radiofrequency Monitor Multi-Channel Radio Frequency and Power Variations? via EMS Analysis via MCSA 83 Cosmic Anti-Matter 1. Cosmic Anti-Matter : Possible Component of Cosmic Rays. 2. If Stratospheric Layer is Thin over the area, Annihilation with Atmospheric Matter occurs at very Low Altitude: Transient Ionization Explosive Process occurs with possible consequent Production of LP Phenomena (Hypothesis). Measurements * TEST ON PHOTOMETRIC AND ACOUSTIC CORRELATED TRANSIENT SKY-VARIATIONS AND SEARCH FOR CORRELATIONS WITH LP FREQUENCY Photometric Measurement Transient Sky-Flashes? of Sky Luminosity via ASP Acoustic Measurement Transient Sky-Quakes? of Sky Noise via AD Transient Radio-Flashes? Radiofrequency Monitor CORRELATION ? via EMS Radio LP Frequency? Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS Photometric Monitor Optical LP Frequency? via VPS Determination of Local Stratospheric Density Thin Local Stratosphere? via MAP 84 Cosmic Baryonic Matter 1. Baryonic Matter : Ascertained Existence ( MACHO) as the Main Form of Cosmic Dark Matter, possibly located in The Solar System too. 2. Interaction with Earth : I - Earth Revolution and/or Sun Galactic Revolution intercepts a Cloud of Baryonic Matter (Hypothesis). II - Cosmic Nucleons interact with Earth Atmosphere: Ionization and production of Aurorae. 3. Atmospheric Ionization produces, possibly, LP Phenomena. 4. Low-Altitude LP Phenomena allowed by Low Stratospheric Thickness. Measurements • TEST ON CORRELATION BETWEEN AURORAL LIGHT INCREASE AND LP FREQUENCY INCREASE Intensity Measurement of High Optical Intensity? Optical Auroral Lights High Auroral Light Radio Power? Radiofrequency Monitor via EMS High Radio LP Frequency? Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS CORRELATION ? Photometric Monitor High Optical LP Frequency? via VPS Determination of Local Stratospheric Thickness Thin Local Stratosphere? via MAP Periodic Phenomenon? Orbital Periodicity of “Earth - Baryonic Matter-Cloud Encounter” ? 85 Meteors 1. A Meteor crossing Atmosphere causes a Moving Ionization Front and increases the air Convective and Electrostatic State. 2. If the Local Stratospheric Layer is (transiently) very Thin, the Air Perturbative Factors can occur at very Low Altitude (Hypothesis). 3. Local Production of LP Phenomena can occur. Measurements • TEST ON CORRELATED FACTORS: Meteor-Trail Countings, LP Countings, Low Local Stratospheric Thickness and Evidence of Meteoric Remnants Monitor of Meteor Trails High Meteor-Trail Frequency? via SST Photometric Monitor High Optical LP Frequency? via VPS Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS CORRELATION ? Radio Meteor-driven Perturbation? Radiofrequency Monitor via EMS High Radio LP Frequency? Search for Meteoric Remnants High Number? Determination of Local Stratospheric Thickness Low Local Stratospheric Thickness? via MAP 86 Artificial Electromagnetic Causes : I LP Production and Stimulation from Electromagnetic Devices E.M. Waves emitted by Radars or Other EM Devices can (Hypothesis) : I - Produce Air-Ionization and, consequently, Induce LP Phenomena. II - Change Energy of Already Formed LP Phenomena. Measurements * TESTS ON ARTIFICIAL EM INTERACTIONS WITH LPs Radar Transmission Radiofrequency Transmission via RS via EMS EM Power? EM Frequency? Air Traffic Monitor AWACS or ELINT Airplanes Flyby? via ACS Optical LP Phenomenon Sighted? Telescope Photometric Monitor via STU via VPS LP Relaxation-Time Measured? Previously Formed LP Phenomenon Disappeared? Tracking via RS-TS Infrared Monitor Soft-Ultraviolet Monitor via IRS via UI 87 Artificial Electromagnetic Causes II : A - LP Production and Stimulation from Totally Dark Flying EM Devices 1. The Interested Area is a Preferential Site of Totally Dark Flying EM Devices (Hypothesis 1). 2. Origin of Flying Devices: Terrestrial or Non-Terrestrial. 3. The Flying Device Propulsion-Mechanism induces Electrostatically and Electromagnetically - via Wave-Particle Interaction - the Formation of Luminous Plasmoids in the Interested Area. B - Lights attached to Partially Dark (EM) Flying Devices 1. The Interested Area is a Preferential Site of Partially Dark Flying Devices (Hypothesis 2). 2. Origin of Flying Devices: Terrestrial or Non-Terrestrial. 3a. Some of the observed Lights are not Luminous Plasmoids but Bright Spots attached to Dark Flying Devices. 3b. Some of the observed Lights can be Luminous Plasmoids Induced by the Propulsion-Mechanism (same way as A,3). C - Totally Lighted Flying Devices 1. The Interested Area is a Preferential Site of Totally Bright Flying Devices (Hypothesis 3). 2. Origin of Flying Devices: Terrestrial or Non-Terrestrial. 3a. Some of the observed Lights are the Flying Devices Themselves. 3b. Some of the observed Lights can be Luminous Plasmoids Induced by the Propulsion-Mechanism (same way as A,3). Measurements 88 • IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF TOTALLY DARK SOLID-LIKE TARGETS CAUSING LUMINOUS PLASMOIDS Luminous Plasmoid Track? Radar Analysis via RS and RIC Solid Object Track? Radiofrequency Analysis via EMS COEXIST ? Luminous Plasmoid Signal? Luminous Plasmoid EM-Emitting Solid Object Signal? ENERGIZED by DARK SOLID FLYING DEVICE Photometric Monitor of Luminous Plasmoid Long LP Relaxation-Time? via VPS Tracking via RS-TS Telescope via STU Spectroscopic Analysis Line-E.W. Measurement High Collision Line-Broadening? of Luminous Plasmoid via OSAS Luminous Plasmoid IR Image Point Only Infrared Analysis Wide-Angle Mode COEXISTS with Zoom Mode Solid Object via IRS IR Image Dark Solid Object IR Image ? IR Spectroscopic Analysis 1. Emission Mechanism? of Dark Solid Object 2. Heating Mechanism? via IRSAS 89 • IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF LIGHT SPOTS LOCATED ON A DARK SOLID-LIKE TARGET Solid Object Track? Radar Analysis via RS and RIC Radar Image? Thermal Emission? Radiofrequency Analysis EM Signal? Power? via EMS Non-Thermal Emission? Magnetometric Analysis Intensity? via MS TIME -VARIABILITY ? OBJECT PROPULSION ? IR Intensity of Solid Object? Solid Object IR Image? Light-Distribution on Solid Object? Infrared Analysis via IRS Non-IR-Emitting Light Spots? IR-Emitting Light Spots? Light-Distribution on Each Light-Spot? Tracking via RS-TS Time-Series Fourier Analysis Telescope via STU Intensity of Light-Spots? Fast Photometry, via FPCP Photometric Analysis via VPS Light- Distribution on Each Light-Spot? Thermal Emission Temperature Spectroscopic Analysis of Light Spots? of Light Spots? via OSAS Chemical Composition of Light Spots? 90 • IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF TOTALLY LUMINOUS SOLID-LIKE TARGETS Thermal Emission? Magnetometric Radiofrequency Analysis EM Signal? Power? Analysis, via MS via EMS Non-Thermal Emission? Intensity? OBJECT PROPULSION ? TIME -VARIABILITY ? Time-Series Fourier Analysis Intensity? Photometric Analysis Fast Photometry, via FPCP via VPS Light -Distribution all over Surface? Telescope via STU Tracking via RS-TS Thermal Emission? Temperature? Spectroscopic Analysis via OSAS Chemical Composition? 91 • LIDAR TESTS ON RELATIVISTIC TARGETS Luminous Plasmoid Track? Radar Analysis via RS and RIC Solid Object Track? EM-Emitting Solid Object Signal? Radiofrequency Analysis via EMS Luminous Plasmoid Signal? Luminous Plasmoid IR Image? Lidar Beam Infrared Analysis pointed near Target via IRS via LIRS Dark Solid Object IR Image? IR Photography of DARK SOLID OBJECT PLUS Lidar Beam Time -Variation ? Pressure? Spectroscopic Analysis Temperature? of Luminous Plasmoid Density? via OSAS Measurements on Object’s Relativistic Beam Approaches Propulsion Beam Deflection? Target at MinimumDistance Tracking via RS-TS Measurement of Wormhole Telescope via STU CCD Photography of Relativistic LUMINOUS SOLID OBJECT Gravity PLUS Lidar Beam Photometric Analysis CCD Photography of Does Solid Object succeed LP ? via VPS LUMINOUS PLASMOID PLUS Lidar Beam Light Intensity? Time-Variation? Wormhole Travel Technique Suspected 92 • EM DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE TARGETS Radiofrequency Analysis via EMS Continuous Signal? Multi-Channel Analysis Bandwidth? Persistence? via MCSA Pulsed Signal? Pulsation Rate? Periodic Amplitude Variations? Regular Variations? EFFECTS? Periodic Bandwidth Variations? Periodic Oscillation from a Peak-Frequency to Another? CAUSES? Periodic Oscillation from Left-Hand to Right-Hand Polarization? Object Propulsion Mechanism? Radio-like Inter-Communications? Coded Transmitted Message? 93 • SEARCH FOR REACTIONS FROM TARGET Photometric Analysis Light Variation from Target? via VPS Telescope via STU Link Photometric Counting converted via Digital-Analogic Converters in Light-Emission from Light-Bulb Tracking via RS-TS Sound Analysis via Digital Synthesizer Object Stimulation and Sequencer via Light-Bulb System OBJECT REACTIONS? Logical Musical Structure ? Photometric Counting Converted in Sound-Emission from Synthesizer • DAYLIGHT PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS Intensity of Reflected Sunlight? Photometric Analysis of Solid-like Target F I T ? via VPS Surface-Distribution of Reflected Sunlight? Computer Simulation of Light Reflection from: 1. Opaque Materials 2. Transparent Materials 3. Porous Materials 4. Shagreened Materials * DRAWING AND ANALYSIS OF GROUND SAMPLES Object Landing? Radioactivity Photograph Ground-Vegetal Spectrochemical Measurement via GRD of Ground-Trace Samples Collection Analysis 94 Quantum Fluctuations of the Vacuum State 1. A Fifth Force Field can arise from the Stimulation of theVacuum State: Some Natural Anomalies can be explained in this way. 2. Forces exerted by Known Quantum and Super-Quantum Matter on Other Quantum and Super-Quantum Matter can produce Deformations in the “rest-state” of the Vacuum: Fluctuations can arise in the form of Energy Release in the form of Luminous Plasmoids (Hypothesis I ). 3. The Mind can Interact Straightly with the Vacuum: Fluctuations can arise in the form of Energy Release in the form of Luminous Plasmoids (Hypothesis II ). Measurements * TEST ON CORRELATED FACTORS: Occurrences, LP Countings and Psychic Power Natural Atomic-Molecular Disturbances? Computer File or on Database Artificial Occurrences? Electromagnetic Disturbances? C Photometric Monitor O via VPS R R Phase Lag - ? E Telescope via STU Tracking via RS -TS LP Frequency? L Synchronicity ? A T Phase Lag + ? Radiofrequency Monitor I via EMS O Magnetometric Monitor N ? via MS Experiments on Neuro-Measurements Neuro-Activity Psychic Talents via TAC-Electroencephalograph Increase? 95 Anti-Plasma Living in Our Atmosphere 1. Peculiar Luminous Objects which (observationally) tend to Contract when subject to Heat Sources: reason of Anti-Plasma. 2. No Consistent Theory exists: only Observations exist. 3. Fundamental Observational Properties : Tendence to Contraction when subject to Heat Sources - Light Pulsation at Various Rates - Phokinetic Behaviour - Very Long Relaxation-Time - Often Enormous Dimensions - Often “Ethereal” Consistence - Strong IR-Radiating Component - High Optical Luminosity - “Laser-like” Protrusions - High Morphological Variety - Often Geometric Forms - Interactivity with EM Devices - Detonation Generation - Deposition of “Angel Hair” - SelfSynchronization of Clusters of objects - Primordial “Non-Molecular” Intelligence. Measurements • OBJECT IDENTIFICATION, TESTS ON RADIATION MECHANISMS AND SEARCH FOR MULTI-FREQUENCY AND TIME-VARIABLE PROFILE Multi-Channel Thermal Process? Radiofrequency Analysis Analysis Power ? via EMS via MCSA Non-Thermal Process? Magnetometric Analysis via MS Intensity? TIME-VARIABILITY? Acoustic Analysis via AD Wide-Angle Identification Infrared Monitor and Analysis via IRS Zoom Intensity? Tracking via RS--TS Surface-Luminosity Distribution? Photometric Analysis Telescope via STU via VPS Spectroscopic Analysis Thermal Process? T, P, D ? via OSAS and IRSAS 96 • TESTS ON TRANSPARENCY LEVEL AND OPTICAL POLARIZATION Polarimetric Analysis Polarization? via PP Photometric Analysis via VPS Object PLUS Beam Photographed Telescope via STU Beam Pointed Beam Absorption? Tracking via RS-TS to Object Beam Refraction? TIME VARIABILITY? Lidar Analysis via LIRS * TEST ON REACTIONS FROM OBJECT: Photokinetic Properties Object Attraction: Each Light-Bulb Emits Light Bulbs Pointed to Object at a given Frequency-Band Power of Light-Bulbs FIXED OBJECT REACTIONS ? Power of Light-Bulbs VARIED Photometric Analysis Obj. Intensity Change? via VPS Obj. Pulsation-Rate Change? Radar Analysis Obj. Velocity Change? via RS-TS Infrared Analysis Obj. Intensity Change? via IRS Obj. Pulsation-Rate Change? Radiofrequency Analysis Obj. Power Change? via EM 97 Pre-Biotic Radiating Matter 1. Many Observational Features common with Anti-Plasma. 2. No Consistent Theory exists: Only Observations exist. 3. Hypothesis: Objects are a Variable Form of Bio-Energy. 4. Distinctive Observational Properties Most Frequent IR Appearance - Pendular Oscillations of Radioactivity - Disappearance of Radioactivity if Light-Spot pointed to Object - Induced Rotation of a Compass-Needle - Occurrence of Burst of Energy coincident with transition from IR to Optical radiating mode - Rotational Diffraction of Photographic Images - Occurrence of “Optical Waves” around Object - Increase of Object’s Pulsation-Rate with Object’s Velocity - Changement of Form or of Luminosity when Radar pointed to Object - Emission of humming and whistling Sounds - Dangerous Interaction with Animals. Measurements * OBJECT IDENTIFICATION AND COUNTING How Many Objects? Infrared Monitor Wide-Angle Mode Identification and Analysis Position? via IRS Intensity? Zoom Mode Analysis of One Object Surface Light-Distribution? Tracking via RS-TS Radiofrequency Monitor Position? Coincidence? and Analysis via EMS EM Power? 98 * TEST ON RADIOACTIVITY DISAPPEARANCE AFTER LIGHT BEAM POINTED AND SEARCH FOR RELATED PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC VARIATIONS Radioactivity Disappearance? Radioactivity Analysis Radioactivity Intensity? via GRD Object Stimulation: Tracking via RS-TS Light ON Light Beam pointed Light OFF via Light Bulbs to : Light Bulbs , VPS , OSAS , IRSAS , IRS Infrared Analysis via IRS Intensity? Color? Photometric Analysis via VPS Spectroscopic Analysis via OSAS and IRSAS Excitation Level? • TEST ON EM GENERAL EMISSION DURING OBJECT’S LIGHT BURST EM Power? Radiofrequency Analysis via EMS Infrared Analysis IR Identification ? Optical Burst? via IRS Optical Identification? Photometric Analysis via VPS Excitation Level? Spectroscopic Analysis via OSAS and IRSAS 99 • TEST ON CORRELATION BETWEEN RADAR-WAVE INJECTION AND OBJECT’S LIGHT CHANGES Radar Tracking Tracking via RS-TS via RS to : VPS , IRS , OSAS , IRSAS, STU Varying Power Radar-Wave Injection and Frequency Telescope via STU to: VPS , OSAS , IRSAS Photometric Analysis via VPS Intensity Variation? Infrared Analysis via IRS Spectroscopic Analysis Excitation Level Variation? via OSAS and IRSAS • SEARCH FOR CORRELATION BETWEEN VELOCITY AND PULSATION RATE Radar Analysis Velocity? via RS CORRELATION? Photometric Analysis Time Series Fourier Analysis Pulsation-Rate? via VPS * SEARCH FOR CORRELATION BETWEEN ACOUSTIC AND EM EMISSION Radiofrequency Analysis, via EMS Power? Photometric Analysis Acoustic Analysis, via AD Intensity? via VPS Intensity? Infrared Analysis via IRS CORRELATION? Spectroscopic Analysis Excitation Level? via OSAS and IRSAS